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Risk Factors for Higher-Grade Transformation in Marginal Zone Lymphoma

In a single-institution study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Alderuccio et al found that not achieving complete remission (CR) after initial treatment, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and more than four nodal sites at marginal zone lymphoma diagnosis are predictive of...

2018 ASTRO: IROCK: Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for RCC in Patients With One Kidney

Treatment of renal cell carcinoma with stereotactic radiation therapy is as safe and effective for patients with one kidney as it is for those with two, according to an analysis of an international data set presented by Correa et al at the 60th Annual Meeting of the American Society for...

2018 ASTRO: SABR-COMET: Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Oligometastatic Tumors

In the first randomized, phase II clinical trial of its kind, researchers have shown that an aggressive form of high-precision radiation therapy can increase survival in patients with oligometastatic tumors. These findings were presented by Palma et al in the plenary session at the 60th Annual ...

IASLC Issues Statement on Lung Cancer Screening With Low-Dose Computed Tomography

The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) recently issued a statement on lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT) based on the results of the Dutch-Belgian NELSON lung cancer screening trial presented at the IASLC 19th World Conference on Lung Cancer...

2018 ASTRO: Overall Survival With Local Consolidative Therapy in Oligometastatic NSCLC

Adding radiation therapy or surgery to systemic therapy for patients with stage IV lung cancer whose cancer has spread to a limited number of sites can significantly extend overall survival, according to new results from a multicenter, randomized, controlled phase II study. The findings were...

2018 ASTRO: Liquid Biopsy in HPV-Associated Oral Cancer Surveillance

A highly sensitive blood test that detects minute traces of cancer-specific DNA has been shown to accurately determine whether patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) are free from cancer following radiation therapy. Findings were presented by...

2018 ASTRO: Radiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery in 'Good-Risk' DCIS

A subset of patients with low-risk breast cancer is highly unlikely to see cancer return following breast conservation surgery, but can lower that risk even further with radiation therapy, finds a new long-term clinical trial report. These 12-year follow-up data from the only prospective,...

lymphoma
cost of care

Cost-Effectiveness of First-Line Brentuximab Vedotin Plus Chemotherapy in Hodgkin Lymphoma

In a cost-effectiveness analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Huntington et al found that the cost of brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris) would need to be reduced in order for the combination of the agent with chemotherapy in first-line treatment of stage III or IV Hodgkin lymphoma to...

Long-Term Results of Sequence of Hormonal Therapy Plus Whole-Pelvic or Prostate-Alone Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer

In long-term follow-up of the phase III NRG/RTOG 9413 study reported in The Lancet Oncology by Roach et al, neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) plus whole-pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) and prostate-only radiotherapy (PORT) plus adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT) were associated with the highest rates of...

2018 ASTRO: FAST Trial Finds Long-Term Side Effects Similar for Once-Weekly and Conventional Breast Radiation Therapies

In a 10-year study of women who received radiation therapy to treat early-stage breast cancer, those receiving fewer, larger individual radiation doses experienced similarly low rates of late-onset side effects as those undergoing conventional radiation therapy. Findings from the...

2018 ASTRO: Impact of MGMT Gene Expression on Overall Survival in Patients With Anaplastic Glioma

A phase III trial revealed that elevated MGMT gene expression is independently associated with worse overall survival for patients with anaplastic grade III gliomas. These findings were presented by Fleming et al at the 60th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and...

2018 ASTRO: Combined Radiation and Cisplatin in HPV-Related Head and Neck Cancer

A phase III trial has determined that cisplatin chemotherapy combined with radiation therapy showed high amounts of activity in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer. Findings from NRG-RTOG 1016 were presented by Trotti et al the 60th Annual Meeting of the American Society for...

prostate cancer
issues in oncology

2018 ASTRO: Radiation Therapy Outcomes in African American Patients With Prostate Cancer

A new analysis of genetic data from a large prospective registry and clinical data from several randomized trials indicates that African American patients may have comparatively higher cure rates when treated with radiation therapy than Caucasian patients. The study, which is the first report...

colorectal cancer
sarcoma

FDA Approves Levoleucovorin for Treatment in Osteosarcoma, Colorectal Cancer

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved levoleucovorin (Khapzory) injection, a folate analog, for three indications: rescue after high-dose methotrexate therapy in patients with osteosarcoma; diminishing the toxicity associated with overdosage of folic acid...

Analgesic Use and Risk of Ovarian Cancer

In an analysis of data from two Nurses’ Health Study cohorts reported in JAMA Oncology by Barnard et al, use of low-dose but not standard-dose aspirin was associated with reduced risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, whereas use of nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Analysis of Prognostic Value of Postinduction PET Response After First-Line Immunochemotherapy for Follicular Lymphoma

In an analysis of the phase III GALLIUM trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Trotman et al found that end-of-induction fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (PET) after first-line immunochemotherapy appeared to better predict treatment outcomes than contrast-enhanced computed tomography ...

head and neck cancer
immunotherapy

ESMO 2018: First-Line Immunotherapy for Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) improved survival in patients with head and neck cancer that has recurred or metastasized in the KEYNOTE-048 trial, according to late-breaking results from the study reported by Burtness et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2018 Congress (Abstract...

ESMO 2018: Cetuximab vs Cisplatin in Patients With HPV-Positive Oropharyngeal Cancer Receiving Radiotherapy

Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive throat cancer responded better to chemoradiotherapy than to cetuximab (Erbitux) with radiotherapy, according to late-breaking research reported by Mehanna et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2018 Congress (Abstract LBA9_PR)....

Activity of Antibody-Drug Conjugate Telisotuzumab Vedotin in c-Met–Positive Advanced NSCLC

In a phase I study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Strickler et al found evidence of activity of the antibody-drug conjugate telisotuzumab vedotin in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) overexpressing c-Met. The agent combines the anti–c-Met monoclonal antibody...

ESMO 2018: Survival Results From STAMPEDE: Local Radiotherapy in Newly Diagnosed Metastatic Prostate Cancer With Low Disease Burden

Radiotherapy to the prostate improved overall survival in men newly diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer who have a low metastatic disease burden, but not in those with higher burden of disease, according to results from a preplanned analysis of a large comparison study reported by Parker et...

kidney cancer
immunotherapy

ESMO 2018: JAVELIN Renal 101: Avelumab Plus Axitinib in Previously Untreated Renal Cell Carcinoma

A combination of the immune checkpoint blocker avelumab (Bavencio) plus the tyrosine kinase inhibitor axitinib (Inlyta) improved progression-free survival (PFS) in previously untreated patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the phase III JAVELIN Renal 101 study, according to results...

ESMO 2018: SOLO-1: Olaparib Maintenance Extends Progression-Free Survival in BRCA1/2-Mutated Advanced Ovarian Cancer

Two-year maintenance therapy with olaparib (Lynparza), a poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, led to a substantial improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) in newly diagnosed patients with advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA1/2 mutation, results from the phase III SOLO-1 trial...

ESMO 2018: SOLAR-1: Alpelisib in Patients With PIK3CA-Mutated HR-Positive, HER2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer

Targeting a common mutation in patients with hormone receptor (HR)–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer with the alpha-specific phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor alpelisib improved progression-free survival, according to...

ESMO 2018: PALOMA-3: Palbociclib in Hormone Receptor–Positive, HER2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer

Treatment with the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib (Ibrance) achieved a clinically meaningful improvement in overall survival in patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer that has relapsed or ...

breast cancer
immunotherapy

ESMO 2018: IMpassion 130: Atezolizumab Plus Nab-Paclitaxel in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

A combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy improves survival in some patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer, according to late-breaking results from the IMpassion130 trial reported by Schmid et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2018 Congress (Abstract...

ESMO 2018: HDAC Inhibitor Therapy in Advanced Hormone Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer

A phase III trial presented by Jiang et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2018 Congress showed activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor therapy in advanced hormone receptor–positive breast cancer (Abstract 283O_PR). Endocrine therapies are the foundation of...

issues in oncology
cost of care

ESMO 2018: Variations Between European Countries in Time to Reimbursement Decisions for New Cancer Treatments Approved by the EMA

Some European countries take more than twice as long as others to reach health technology assessment (HTA) decisions to reimburse new cancer treatments following their approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). The average decision time is longer than 1 year in some countries, according to a...

issues in oncology
gastroesophageal cancer
symptom management

ESMO 2018: Pooled Analysis of Influence of Sex on Chemotherapy Efficacy and Toxicity in Esophagogastric Cancer

In an analysis presented by Davidson et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2018 Congress (Abstract 619PD_PR), data were pooled from four UK randomized controlled clinical trials of first-line chemotherapy in esophagogastric cancer, finding significant differences in a...

ESMO 2018: About 1 in 6 Premenopausal Patients With Early Breast Cancer Do Not Adhere to Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy

Nearly 1 in 6 premenopausal women being treated for early-stage breast cancer do not adhere adequately to tamoxifen therapy after 1 year of treatment, potentially putting themselves at increased risk of recurrence and reduced survival, reported a French prospective study at the European Society for ...

ESMO 2018: Short-HER Trial Examines Abbreviated Course of Trastuzumab in Some HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancers

Women with HER2-positive early breast cancer with small tumors have similar disease-free survival and lower risk of cardiac toxicity with a 9-week course of adjuvant trastuzumab (Herceptin) compared to those treated for 1 year, according to a subgroup analysis of the Short-HER trial reported by...

hematologic malignancies
immunotherapy

Adoptive T-Cell Therapy for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

An emerging treatment known as adoptive T-cell therapy has proven effective in a phase II clinical trial for treating progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare and often fatal brain infection sometimes observed in patients with cancer and other diseases in which the immune...

Genomic Classification of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms and Integration in Predictive Models

In a study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Grinfeld et al identified distinct genomic subgroups among patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms that, when combined with clinical variables, offered the potential for individualized predictions of clinical outcomes. Study Details...

Adjuvant Chemotherapy in High-Grade Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Hensley et al, a phase III NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study assessing adjuvant chemotherapy vs observation in disease-free patients with uterus-confined high-grade leiomyosarcoma was stopped due to accrual futility; available data...

Regular Aspirin Use and Reduction in Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

A pooled analysis of two large U.S. prospective cohort studies reported in JAMA Oncology by Simon et al indicates that regular use of aspirin is associated with a significant reduction in risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with an apparent dose- and duration-dependent effect. Study Details...

Established, Modifiable Cancer Risk Factors

According to a new American Cancer Society report published by Gapstur et al in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, the highest priority in a national cancer control plan is the expansion of tobacco control—the intervention with the largest potential health benefits. This report is the...

Chemotherapy-Free Initial Treatment of Advanced Indolent Lymphoma

In an analysis of two Nordic Lymphoma Group trials with long-term follow up reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lockmer and colleagues found evidence that many patients receiving rituximab (Rituxan) as initial treatment for advanced indolent lymphoma may not require the addition of...

Utility of FDG-PET for Residual Lesions After Chemotherapy for Metastatic Seminoma

In an analysis of International Global Germ Cell Cancer Group Registry data reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Cathomas et al, fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) was found to have a low positive predictive value for vital tumor in residual lesions after...

palliative care
lung cancer
issues in oncology
cost of care

ICU Admissions During Terminal Hospitalizations in Patients With Stage IV Lung Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Mrad et al found an increase in the proportion of patients with stage IV lung cancer admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) during terminal hospitalization between 1998 and 2014. A large increase in palliative care contacts also occurred,...

FDA Approves Talazoparib for Deleterious Germline BRCA-Mutated HER2-Negative Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

On October 16, 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved talazoparib (Talzenna), a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, for patients with deleterious or suspected deleterious germline BRCA-mutated (gBRCAm), HER2-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer....

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Small Study of Neoadjuvant Combination Checkpoint Blockade in High-Risk Stage III Melanoma

Neoadjuvant combination checkpoint blockade showed activity among patients with high-risk stage III melanoma in a small study. However, a high incidence of side effects caused the trial to be closed early. These results were published by Amaria et al in Nature Medicine. The phase II...

Study Finds Deep Learning Can Distinguish Recalled-Benign Mammogram Images From Malignant and Negative Cases

Although digital mammography is effective in detecting early-stage breast cancer and in reducing mortality, high recall rates after a screening mammogram often result in unnecessary medical procedures, including breast biopsies, medical costs, and psychological stress for patients.   A...

FDA Accepts New Drug Application, Grants Priority Review to Selinexor for Pentarefractory Multiple Myeloma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted a new drug application seeking accelerated approval for selinexor, a first-in-class, oral selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compound, as a new treatment for patients with pentarefractory multiple myeloma. The FDA...

lung cancer
issues in oncology
pain management

Opioid Use Following Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery or Open Resection in Early-Stage Lung Cancer

In a study reported in a research letter in JAMA Oncology, Tuminello et al found that video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS) was less likely than open resection to be associated with long-term opioid use in patients undergoing surgery for early-stage lung cancer. Study Details The study...

leukemia
lymphoma

Duvelisib vs Ofatumumab in Relapsed or Refractory CLL/SLL

As reported in the journal Blood by Flinn et al, the phase III DUO trial has shown significantly prolonged progression-free survival with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-δ,-γ inhibitor duvelisib (Copiktra) vs ofatumumab (Arzerra) in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic...

ESMO 2018: Patients With Breast Cancer Use Twitter as a Nonmedical Forum to Share Experiences

Twitter is a place where many patients with cancer go to share and discuss their experiences of the disease, according to a recent exploratory study to be presented by Sánchez-Bayona et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2018 Congress (360P_PR). The...

ESMO 2018: Precision Cancer Care Moves to Community Setting

Nearly 1 in 4 patients with advanced cancer treated at a community practice cancer network in the United States received innovative drugs matched to DNA mutations in their tumors. These results, to be reported by Alvarez et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2018 Congress...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

KEYNOTE-407: First-Line Pembrolizumab Plus Chemotherapy in Metastatic Squamous NSCLC

As reported at the recent International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 19th World Conference on Lung Cancer and in The New England Journal of Medicine by Paz-Ares et al, the phase III KEYNOTE-407 trial has shown that the addition of pembrolizumab to platinum-based chemotherapy...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Epacadostat Plus Anti–PD-1 Immunotherapy in Advanced Solid Tumors

As reported by Mitchell et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the combination of the oral indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) enzyme inhibitor epacadostat and the anti–programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy pembrolizumab (Keytruda) showed activity in advanced solid tumors in the ...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

Adherence to Endocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer in Black Women and White Women

In a study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Wheeler et al found that black women reported nonadherence to endocrine therapy for breast cancer more often than white women, although no significant difference in discontinuation of treatment was observed. The study...

Assessment of the 8th Edition of the AJCC TNM Staging System in Cohort With Resected Pancreatic Cancer

In a study reported in JAMA Surgery, van Roessel et al found that the recently released 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system for pancreatic cancer provided better distribution among cases and some increase in prognostic...

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