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Unplanned Hospitalizations in the Year After Cancer Diagnosis

In a California population–based cohort study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Whitney et al found that 67% of hospitalizations in the year after cancer diagnosis were unplanned, with 67% of such hospitalizations originating in the emergency department. The study involved data...

Overall Survival of Black vs White Men Receiving Docetaxel Regimens for Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

In an analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Halabi et al found that overall survival was improved for black men vs white men receiving regimens containing docetaxel and prednisone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. As noted by the investigators, several studies...

prostate cancer
immunotherapy

MSI-H/dMMR Tumors in Prostate Cancer and Response to Immune Checkpoint Blockade

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Abida et al found that approximately 3% of patients with prostate cancer had microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H)/mismatch repair–deficient (dMMR) tumors and that some of these patients exhibited durable responses to treatment with immune...

Association Between Sun Exposure and BMI in the Development of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

Exposure to the sun, whether cumulative or intermittent, is a known risk factor for the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Past studies have found that greater body mass index (BMI) actually lessens the risk of women developing NMSCs. With this in mind, researchers sought to determine...

prostate cancer
issues in oncology

Gleason 6 Score May Underestimate Prostate Cancer Mortality Risk in Black Men

Black men diagnosed with prostate cancer classified as low risk may actually have a more aggressive form of the disease that is more likely to be fatal than in nonblack men placed in the same prognostic category, according to results from a new study published as a research letter by Mahal et al in ...

Detection of Relapse in Children and Adolescents With Nongerminomatous Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

In a report from the Children’s Oncology Group published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Fonseca et al found that relapse in children and adolescents with nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (MGCTs) was most frequently identified by tumor markers rather than imaging. Study...

Neoadjuvant Degarelix vs Triptorelin in Premenopausal Women Receiving Letrozole for Locally Advanced, Endocrine-Responsive Breast Cancer

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Dellapasqua et al found that neoadjuvant treatment with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist degarelix was more effective than the GnRH agonist triptorelin in achieving ovarian function suppression (OFS) in...

Risk of Intracranial Malignancy After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Nonmalignant Conditions

In a retrospective cohort study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Wolf et al found that patients undergoing Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery for nonmalignant neurosurgical conditions did not appear to be at long-term increased risk of radiation-associated secondary intracranial malignancy or...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

2018 Young-Onset Colorectal Cancer Survey Report Covers Disease Stage at Diagnosis and More

Nearly three-quarters of patients with young-onset colorectal cancer are diagnosed with an advanced stage of the disease, a significantly higher percentage than has been reported for their more mature peers, according to a report from the Colorectal Cancer Alliance. The findings of...

Quality of Life and Patient- and Clinician-Reported Cumulative Toxicity

New research has found that quality of life for people with cancer is reduced by an accumulation of low-level toxicities just as much as it is from high-level adverse events. Additionally, patient-reported outcomes were more likely to reflect the impact on a patient’s physical well-being than ...

Analysis of Cause of Death in Patients With Follicular Lymphoma in the Rituximab Era

In a pooled analysis of French and U.S. follicular lymphoma cohorts reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sarkozy and colleagues found that lymphoma was the most common cause of death during the first decade of the rituximab era in treatment of the disease. The study involved data from...

sarcoma
issues in oncology

Regionalization of Surgery for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Surgery to High-Volume Hospitals

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Villano et al found that regionalization of retroperitoneal sarcoma surgery—recognized as a complex cancer surgery—to high-volume hospitals has been slower than that observed for similarly complex pancreatic cancer surgery over...

Maintenance Olaparib in Newly Diagnosed Advanced Ovarian Cancer

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Moore et al, the phase III SOLO-1 trial has shown that maintenance with olaparib, following complete or partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy, significantly prolonged progression-free survival vs placebo in...

Negative Colonoscopy and Long-Term Risk of Colorectal Cancer

Ten years after a negative colonoscopy, patients who were rescreened for colorectal cancer had a lower risk of being diagnosed with and were less likely to die from colorectal cancer compared with those who did not undergo colorectal cancer screening, according to a study published by Lee et al...

issues in oncology
cost of care

New Study Examines Orphan Drug Exclusivity and Pricing

A new report commissioned by the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) and published by the IQVIA Institute demonstrates that the 7-year market exclusivity granted to drugs designated under the Orphan Drug Act of 1983 for rare diseases is working as intended. In nearly every case, orphan...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Factors Influencing Response to Pembrolizumab in Various Advanced Cancers

In an analysis from the phase Ib KEYNOTE-028 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Ott et al found that response to pembrolizumab across different cancers was more likely in patients with higher tumor mutational burden, T-cell–inflamed gene-expression profile, and programmed...

Transformation of EGFR-Mutant NSCLC to SCLC

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Marcoux et al provided further evidence that EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can undergo transformation to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and identified factors associated with such transformation. It has been estimated...

FDA Expands Indication for Dasatinib to Pediatric Patients With Ph+ ALL in Combination With Chemotherapy

On January 2, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) expanded the indication for dasatinib (Sprycel) tablets to include the treatment of pediatric patients 1 year of age and older with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome–positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in...

Association Between Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Cancer Risk

New research published by Song et al in Arthritis Research & Therapy evaluated the link between lupus and cancer risk, supporting the data from earlier studies. The newer study indicates an association between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and increased risk for several cancers (blood,...

Study Assesses Impact of Digital Mammography on Breast Cancer Detection and Recall Rates

The shift from film to digital mammography increased the detection of breast cancer overall in the United Kingdom—without increasing the recall rate—according to a study published by Blanks et al in Radiology. “Image quality with digital mammography is improved over that of...

Lenalidomide Maintenance vs Observation in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma

In a UK phase III trial (Myeloma XI) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Jackson et al found that lenalidomide maintenance was associated with improved progression-free survival but not overall survival among patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma with at least minimal response to induction...

Sorafenib in Progressive, Symptomatic, or Recurrent Desmoid Tumors

In a phase III trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Gounder et al found that sorafenib improved progression-free survival vs placebo in patients with progressive, symptomatic, or recurrent desmoid tumors. As noted by the investigators, there is no current standard of care for...

Time to Biochemical Failure as Surrogate Endpoint in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Dignam et al, analysis of outcomes in the phase III NRG/RTOG 9202 trial indicates that the time interval to biochemical failure (IBF) could serve as a surrogate endpoint for clinical outcomes in patients receiving radiotherapy plus long-term...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Pilot Study of Intratumoral G100 in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Multiple recent reports have addressed the activity of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, such as pembrolizumab and avelumab, in Merkel cell carcinoma. However, approximately half of all patients who receive these agents do not maintain a persistent response. In an...

lymphoma
survivorship

High Long-Term Risk of Solid Cancers in Survivors of Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

A new study may bolster existing evidence that survivors of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma face an elevated risk of developing various types of solid tumors many years later. The study showed that certain subgroups of patients have an especially high risk. Published by Holmqvist et al in the journal...

Regorafenib vs Lomustine in Relapsed Glioblastoma

In the Italian phase II REGOMA trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Lombardi et al found that regorafenib was associated with improved overall survival vs lomustine in patients with relapsed glioblastoma. In the open-label trial, 119 patients from 10 Italian sites were randomly assigned between...

RADAR Trial: Short- vs Intermediate-Term Androgen Suppression and Zoledronic Acid in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer

As reported by Denham et al in The Lancet Oncology, 10-year results of the phase III TROG 03.04 RADAR trial have shown that 18 months of androgen suppression plus radiotherapy is more effective than 6 months of androgen suppression plus radiotherapy in locally advanced prostate cancer, but no...

Adjuvant FOLFIRINOX vs Gemcitabine in Pancreatic Cancer

In a phase III Canadian and French trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Conroy and colleagues in the Canadian Cancer Trials Group and the Unicancer-GI–PRODIGE Group found that adjuvant modified FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, oxaliplatin) produced better...

FDA Approves Ravulizumab-cwvz for Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

On December 21, 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ravulizumab-cwvz (Ultomiris) for adult patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). PNH is a rare bone marrow failure disorder that manifests with hemolytic anemia, thrombosis, and peripheral blood cytopenias....

FDA Approves Tagraxofusp-ezrs for Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm

On December 21, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved tagraxofusp-erzs (Elzonris) infusion for the treatment of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) in adults and in pediatric patients aged 2 years and older. “Prior to [this] approval, there had been no...

FDA Approves Calaspargase Pegol-mknl for Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With ALL

On December 20, 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved calaspargase pegol-mknl (Asparlas), an asparagine-specific enzyme, as a component of a multiagent chemotherapeutic regimen for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in pediatric and young adult patients aged 1 month to...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

ESMO Immuno-Oncology 2018: Second-Line Nivolumab vs Chemotherapy in SCLC

Treatment with nivolumab (Opdivo) did not improve response rates or survival over standard chemotherapy in patients with metastatic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) who relapsed following first-line treatment, according to findings presented by Reck et al at the European Society for Medical...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

ESMO Immuno-Oncology 2018: OpACIN Trial: Neoadjuvant Ipilimumab Plus Nivolumab in Stage III Melanoma

Updated data of the OpACIN study, which studied combined ipilimumab (Yervoy) plus nivolumab (Opdivo) administered as neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy in patients with high-risk stage III melanoma, demonstrated high response rates upon neoadjuvant therapy and promising long-term clinical outcome,...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

ESMO Immuno-Oncology 2018: OAK Trial: Fast Progression in Patients With NSCLC Treated With Atezolizumab vs Chemotherapy

Overall survival (OS) was improved across all subgroups of patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received atezolizumab (Tecentriq) compared with chemotherapy, including poor prognostic factors that were evaluated in an analysis of data from the OAK trial. Additionally, this...

FDA Issues Guidance on Endpoints for Cancer Clinical Trials

This week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a guidance titled Clinical Trial Endpoints for the Approval of Cancer Drugs and Biologics. The guidance provides recommendations to applicants on endpoints for cancer clinical trials submitted to the FDA to support effectiveness claims...

Adjuvant Trastuzumab Emtansine vs Trastuzumab in Patients With HER2-Positive Breast Cancer With Residual Disease After Neoadjuvant Therapy

As reported at the recent San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium and in The New England Journal of Medicine by von Minckwitz et al, an interim analysis of the phase III KATHERINE trial has shown that adjuvant trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1; Kadcyla) improved invasive disease–free survival vs...

Disease-Free Survival With Letrozole vs Placebo After Aromatase Inhibitor–Based Therapy in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

As reported by Mamounas et al in The Lancet Oncology, the phase III NRG Oncology/NSABP B-42 trial has shown no disease-free survival benefit with 5 years of letrozole (Femara) vs placebo after 5 years of aromatase inhibitor–based therapy in women with hormone receptor–positive...

FDA Approves Olaparib for Maintenance Treatment of BRCA-Mutated, Advanced Ovarian Cancer

On December 19, 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved olaparib (Lynparza) for the maintenance treatment of adult patients with deleterious or suspected deleterious germline or somatic BRCA-mutated advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer...

Nuclear Excision Repair as a Possible Predictor of Early Relapse in Pediatric ALL

Researchers recently discovered that by testing the level of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene expression, pediatric oncologists may be able to determine the likelihood of early relapse (less than 3 years) in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These findings were published by...

First-Line Ibrutinib With or Without Rituximab vs Rituximab/Bendamustine in Older Patients With CLL

In a phase III trial reported at the recent American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting & Exposition and in The New England Journal of Medicine by Woyach et al, ibrutinib (Imbruvica) and ibrutinib/rituximab (Rituxan) were associated with superior progression-free survival vs...

FDA Approves Pembrolizumab for Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for adult and pediatric patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. The FDA’s approval was based on Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network protocol 9...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

Increased Risk for Breast Cancer After Childbirth May Last More Than 2 Decades

Although parity—time since most recent birth— is recognized as a protective factor against breast cancer, an analysis of data from 15 prospective cohort studies to assess breast cancer risk in relation to recent childbirth has found that compared to women of the same age who had never...

MURANO Trial Follow-up: MRD and Prognosis With Fixed Duration of Venetoclax/Rituximab in Relapsed or Refractory CLL

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Kater et al, high undetectable minimal residual disease (MRD) rates persisted after the end of venetoclax (Venclexta)/rituximab (Rituxan) treatment in the phase III MURANO trial in relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and were ...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

ESMO Immuno-Oncology 2018: Does Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy Impact the Efficacy of Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab?

Patients with melanoma receiving proton pump inhibitors for comorbidities derived approximately half the clinical benefit from immunotherapy consisting of nivolumab (Opdivo) plus ipilimumab (Yervoy) as patients receiving the same combination but not treated with proton pump inhibitors, according to ...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

ESMO Immuno-Oncology 2018: MYSTIC: First-Line Durvalumab With or Without Tremelimumab in Metastatic NSCLC

First-line immunotherapy with durvalumab (Imfinzi) or the combination of durvalumab and tremelimumab does not improve overall survival in unselected patients with lung cancer, according to late-breaking results from the MYSTIC trial presented by Rizvi et al at the European Society for Medical...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

ESMO Immuno-Oncology 2018: KEYNOTE-010: Long-Term Treatment With Pembrolizumab in Previously Treated NSCLC

Patients with previously treated, advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received pembrolizumab (Keytruda) showed significantly longer overall survival (OS) compared to those treated with docetaxel, Herbst et al reported at the ESMO Immuno-Oncology Congress 2018 in Geneva,...

Radiotherapy Plus Cetuximab or Cisplatin in HPV-Positive Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

In a noninferiority phase III trial (NRG Oncology RTOG 1016) reported in The Lancet, Gillison et al found that radiotherapy plus cetuximab (Erbitux) was associated with poorer overall survival vs radiotherapy plus cisplatin in patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal...

ASCO and ESMO Publish Joint Assessment of Their Value Frameworks

To better understand the performance characteristics of ASCO’s Value Framework Net Health Benefit Score version 2 (ASCO-NHB v2) and the European Society for Medical Oncology’s (ESMO’s) Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale version 1.1 (ESMO-MCBS v1.1), ASCO and ESMO undertook a...

head and neck cancer
immunotherapy

Pembrolizumab vs Standard of Care in Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

In the phase III KEYNOTE-040 trial reported in The Lancet, Cohen et al found that pembrolizumab (Keytruda) was associated with a “clinically meaningful prolongation of overall survival” vs investigator’s choice of standard therapies in patients with previously treated recurrent or ...

Addition of Neoadjuvant Palbociclib to Letrozole in Estrogen Receptor–Positive Early Breast Cancer

In the phase II PALLET trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Johnston et al found that the addition of neoadjuvant palbociclib (Ibrance) to letrozole increased rates of complete cell-cycle arrest, reduced apoptosis, and did not significantly improve clinical response rate in patients...

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