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hematologic malignancies

New Use for CAR-T Cells Post Transplantation

The approach of using genetically engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells has received much attention for treating leukemias, where it has achieved spectacular long-lasting complete remissions in some patients with no other treatment options. CAR-T cells are also being studied in...

leukemia

Venetoclax May Prove to Be Strong Weapon Against Poor-Prognosis Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Venetoclax, the latest entry into the field of treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), is a powerful investigational therapy that promises to fill an important niche: treatment of high-risk relapsed/refractory patients with deletions of 17p. Nearly 80% of patients with relapsed/refractory...

leukemia

Severe Toxicities Seen in Younger Patients Receiving  Front-Line Idelalisib for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Hematologists and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are excited about new drugs that have dramatically improved outcomes. But all drugs have side effects, and it is important to be aware of potential consequences. Hepatotoxicity turns out to be a major concern in younger CLL...

leukemia
issues in oncology

Idelalisib Improves Progression-Free Survival Over Bendamustine Plus Rituximab in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Idelalisib (Zydelig) combined with bendamustine (Bendeka, Treanda) plus rituximab (Rituxan) was superior to chemotherapy with bendamustine/rituximab plus placebo, reducing the risk of progressive disease and death while improving progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with...

breast cancer

Study Suggests Luminal A Breast Cancer Patients May Not Need Chemotherapy

The ability to classify breast cancer according to biologic subtype has enabled researchers to dig deeper and determine which therapies benefit specific subgroups. Encouraging evidence from an analysis of a Danish trial presented at the 2015 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium suggests that...

hematologic malignancies
lymphoma

Could CAR-T Therapy Be Moving Into Lymphoma?

The use of T cells that are genetically engineered to express chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) has made headway as an approach to hematologic malignancies, with the best results achieved in leukemia. At the 2015 American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition, a preliminary...

gynecologic cancers

Important Briefs from the ACOG 59th Annual Clinical Meeting

Several presentations at the 59th Annual Clinical Meeting of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), held April 30–May 4 in Washington, DC, focused on cancers associated with the reproductive tract and issues important to women’s health. Four noteworthy studies presented at...

gynecologic cancers

2011 ASCO Annual Meeting: 3-Year Screening Interval Safe for Women with HPV-negative and Normal Pap Tests, Data Show

A large, “real-world” study has validated current recommendations from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) endorsing a 3-year cervical cancer screening interval for women...

Expert Point of View: Capecitabine Noninferior to 5-FU with Improved Toxicity Profile in Rectal Cancer, Two Studies Demonstrate

Formal discussant of the trial, Robert Glynne-Jones, MD, Mount Vernon Centre for Cancer Treatment, London, said: “It is arduous to perform rectal cancer trials. That is one of reason we are interested in short endpoints.” Regarding the first study, he said that historically, compliance has been...

colorectal cancer

Capecitabine Noninferior to 5-FU with Improved Toxicity Profile in Rectal Cancer, Two Studies Demonstrate

Two separate trials presented during an oral session at the 2011 ASCO Annual Meeting suggest that capecitabine (Xeloda) can replace fluorouracil (5-FU) as part of chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. Patients randomly assigned to either treatment had comparable outcomes but with less toxicity from...

cns cancers

Plenary Report: Busulfan/Melphalan Improves Survival in High-risk Neuroblastoma Patients, Phase III Study Results Show

Myeloablative therapy with a busulfan (Busulfex, Myleran)/melphalan combination (BuMel) was superior to a regimen of carboplatin/etoposide/melphalan (CEM) in pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma, according to results of the large, phase III HR-NBL1/SIOPEN trial presented at the 2011 ASCO ...

leukemia

Plenary Report: High-dose Methotrexate Improves Outcome for High-risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Younger Patients

High-dose methotrexate achieved superior event-free survival rates compared with standard Capizzi (escalating) methotrexate treatment in children and young adults with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), according to a practice-changing study reported during the Plenary Session of the...

colorectal cancer

Smoking and Lack of Exercise Increase Risk of Some Cancers, but Moderate Alcohol Consumption Reduces Colon Cancer Risk

A substudy of the large prospective National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial revealed both expected and surprising findings related to the association between lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, alcohol, and exercise) and cancer risk. As might be...

hematologic malignancies

Novel JAK Inhibitor May Be an Option for Patients with Myelofibrosis

A new approach to treating myelofibrosis appears to be paying off, according to several studies presented at the 2011 ASCO Annual Meeting. Treatment with a novel JAK inhibitor called ruxolitinib demonstrated significant and sustained improvement in splenomegaly and overall quality of life,...

lung cancer

Maintenance Therapy Prolongs Progression-free Survival in Advanced NSCLC but Produces No Overall Survival Benefit

Maintenance therapy with either pemetrexed (Alimta) or gefitinib (Iressa) achieved modest improvements in progression-free survival in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The magnitude of improved progression-free survival was 1.3 months and 2.2 months, respectively, in the...

lung cancer

Emerging Targeted Therapies Offer Glimmer of Hope for NSCLC but Biomarkers for Response Needed

Among the newer approaches to treatment of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonists, and vascular-disrupting agents. So far, none appears to be a “home run,” but Hsp90 inhibition may be the most promising of the three...

gynecologic cancers

Bevacizumab Makes Inroads against Ovarian Cancer

Bevacizumab (Avastin) administered with chemotherapy and continued after chemotherapy improves outcomes in ovarian cancer, according to two multicenter, randomized, double-blind phase III investigations presented at the 2011 ASCO Annual Meeting. The first study, ICON7, incorporated bevacizumab as...

multiple myeloma

Second Primary Malignancies Explored in Multiple Myeloma

Three randomized controlled trials presented at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) suggested that treating multiple myeloma with lenalidomide (Revlimid) increased the risk of second primary malignancies; of particular concern is transformation to acute myeloid...

gynecologic cancers

Screening for Ovarian Cancer Does Not Reduce Mortality and Leads to Unnecessary Tests for False-Positives

Using a CA-125 blood test combined with transvaginal ultrasound for early detection of ovarian cancer failed to reduce the risk of mortality associated with the disease and led to a large number of false-positive tests with unnecessary related biopsies and other follow-up procedures in the large,...

prostate cancer

Short-term Androgen Deprivation plus Radiotherapy Improves Outcomes in Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer

The addition of short-term androgen-deprivation therapy to external-beam radiation therapy improved overall and disease-specific survival in men with nonbulky localized prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels up to 20 ng/mL, as reported recently in The New England Journal of...

prostate cancer

International Prostate Cancer Studies Report Inroads in Managing Bone Metastases

Treatment and prevention of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer is coming of age, according to several studies presented at the European Multidisciplinary Cancer Congress (ECCO/ESMO/ESTRO). Among the most impressive studies reported was an international phase III trial of radium-223,...

breast cancer

T-DM1: Antibody Drug Conjugate Outperforms Standard Anti‑HER2 Therapy in Metastatic HER2-positive Breast Cancer

The investigational antibody-drug conjugate T-DM1 improved progression-free survival over standard chemotherapy with docetaxel plus trastuzumab (Herceptin) when given as first-line treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, according to an open-label phase II study reported at the 2011...

lung cancer

NSCLC Studies: Bevacizumab/Pemetrexed Maintenance Improves Survival, KRAS Status Has No Impact on Outcomes with Sorafenib

Maintenance therapy with bevacizumab (Avastin) plus pemetrexed (Alimta) showed a modest improvement in progression-free survival vs bevacizumab alone in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to the final analysis of the AVAPERL study. In a separate study, selecting...

breast cancer

Everolimus Overcomes Resistance to Hormonal Therapy in Advanced Breast Cancer

Adding everolimus (Afinitor) to exemestane in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer resistant to aromatase inhibitors significantly improved outcomes, according to the phase III BOLERO-2 trial reported at the 2011 European Multidisciplinary Cancer Congress, held September 23–27 in...

skin cancer

‘Breakthrough’ Approach to Advanced Basal Cell Carcinoma via Inhibition of Hedgehog Pathway

The first-in-class Hedgehog pathway inhibitor vismodegib appears to be a successful treatment for advanced basal cell carcinoma, a disfiguring and debilitating disease, according to a pivotal multicenter nonrandomized trial presented as a Best Abstract at a Presidential Session during the recent...

hematologic malignancies
leukemia
lymphoma
multiple myeloma

NCCN Meeting Addresses Issues in Hematologic Malignancies

The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) 6th Annual Congress on Hematologic Malignancies, held recently in New York, included reviews of the management of hematologic diseases as well as discussions of outstanding issues in the field. The following is a synopsis of some of the important...

sarcoma

Researchers Find Remarkable Heterogeneity in Sarcomas

Does one size fit all for the treatment of sarcoma? The answer is a resounding “no,” according to Jean-Yves Blay, MD, Department of Medicine, Université Claude Bernard, and Unité INSERM (National Institute of Health and Medical Research Unit), Lyon, France. Researchers have been able to classify...

breast cancer

Male Breast Cancer Differs from Breast Cancer in Women, but Little Data Informs Treatment

Although a rare occurrence, men do get breast cancer, and when they do, it has a distinct biology from that of female breast cancer. About 90% of cases most closely resemble postmenopausal female invasive ductal carcinoma, and 10% are ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), which accounts for 25% of...

lung cancer
gynecologic cancers
colorectal cancer
hepatobiliary cancer

Important Briefs from the 2011 European Multidisciplinary Cancer Congress

Nearly 16,000 people from 16 countries attended this year’s European Multidisciplinary Cancer Congress, held recently in Stockholm. The ASCO Post has featured several key reports from the meeting and will offer further coverage in upcoming issues. Additional noteworthy studies presented at the...

lung cancer

Advances in Lung Cancer Treatment Show Incremental Benefits, but Room for Improvement Remains

Newer therapies for the treatment of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were discussed at the Chemotherapy Foundation Symposium. More inroads have been made in improving outcomes for patients with NSCLC than for those with SCLC, but there is still room for...

bladder cancer

Highlights of Bladder Cancer Research Include Novel Agents and New Approach to Identifying Biomarkers

It is an exciting time for researchers involved in developing new therapies for bladder cancer. More agents are in clinical development, drugs with novel mechanisms and novel trial designs are being implemented, and functional collaboration is occurring in the field, according to Noah Hahn, MD,...

breast cancer

Changes in Receptor Status during Breast Cancer Progression Warrant Rebiopsies at Relapse and Metastasis

Oncologists should be aware that common clinical tumor markers (denoting hormonal and HER2 status) change as breast cancer progresses, because these changes can affect treatment selection. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 receptor status was changed from the time of the...

prostate cancer

Sipuleucel-T Should Be Used Early in Metastatic Castrate-resistant Prostate Cancer, before Chemotherapy

When sipuleucel-T (Provenge) was approved by FDA in April 2010, it was the first vaccine to be approved as a treatment for prostate cancer and was hailed as a major advance. Although sipuleucel-T is now reimbursable by Medicare, some physicians are not clear about when to use it, and patients who...

lymphoma

Expert Point of View: Improved Survival with Chemotherapy Alone in Limited-stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

A criticism of the HD.6 trial is that current radiation techniques are probably less toxic than subtotal nodal radiation therapy, which was used in this investigation. Responding to this in an accompanying editorial in The New England Journal of Medicine,1 David J. Straus, MD, of the lymphoma...

lymphoma

Improved Survival with Chemotherapy Alone in Limited-stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

An important study suggests that radiotherapy may not be a necessary addition to chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with limited-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, sparing patients the risks of late radiation-induced cardiac effects and second cancers. These data were based on 12 years of follow-up ...

leukemia

Is Gemtuzumab a Therapeutic Option in Older Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

Previous studies of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) had variable results in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Before trials reported at the 2011 ASH Annual Meeting, two major studies had compared chemotherapy with or without gemtuzumab in patients with AML, said Martin Tallman, MD, Chief of the...

leukemia

Is Gemtuzumab a Therapeutic Option in Older Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

A study presented at the Plenary Session of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) breathes new life into an older drug for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that is no longer available in the United States.1 Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) appears to be a promising...

lymphoma

New Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody Studied in B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

The new anti-CD20 monocolonal antibody obinutuzumab is being studied in the treatment of patients with relapsed CD20-positive indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. GAUSS is the first clinical trial to compare obinutuzumab head-to-head against rituximab (Rituxan) induction therapy. “In this first...

issues in oncology

Which Is Better: Peripheral Blood or Bone Marrow as Unrelated Donor Stem Cell Source?

Over the past decade, the use of peripheral blood stem cells has increased, and now about 75% of unrelated living donor transplants are performed using peripheral blood stem cells without supportive data in the unrelated donor setting. This trend is called into question by results of a large phase...

multiple myeloma

Long-term Survival Benefit and Safety Confirmed for VMP Regimen in Multiple Myeloma in Patients Who Were Not Transplant Candidates

Five-year analysis of the VISTA trial confirms a survival advantage with VMP (bortezomib [Velcade], melphalan, and prednisone) for upfront treatment of multiple myeloma in patients who were not transplant candidates. At a median follow-up of 60.1 months, a 13-month improvement in overall survival...

prostate cancer

Two Novel Agents Prolong Survival in Advanced Prostate Cancer

Two novel agents with distinct mechanisms of action join ranks of treatments that extend survival for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer: MDV3100 and radium-223. Both drugs achieved a survival advantage compared with placebo, with relatively benign side-effect profiles, according to ...

hematologic malignancies
leukemia
lymphoma

ASH 2011 Presentations Include Novel Agents and New Strategies in Leukemia, Lymphoma, and Myeloma

Attendees at the 53rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), held recently in in San Diego, were able to choose from a wide range of interesting and important sessions exploring hematologic malignancies. In addition to The ASCO Post’s regular news coverage from the meeting,...

prostate cancer

Immune Changes Reported with Early Use of Sipuleucel-T in Neoadjuvant Setting for Prostate Cancer

Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) can generate a circulating immune response to treat men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer, as per its FDA-approved indication.1 A neoadjuvant trial was performed to investigate whether earlier use of sipuleucel-T can generate an immune response in the...

prostate cancer
bladder cancer
kidney cancer

Important News Briefs: New Data Reported in Prostate, Bladder, and Kidney Cancers

The recent 2012 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium featured a wealth of presentations on prostate, bladder, kidney, and other genitourinary cancers. Brief summaries of some of the oral and poster sessions are presented. Exercise and Recurrence Vigorous exercise has been shown to reduce cancer...

prostate cancer

Expert Point of View: Prostate Cancer Studies Compare Outcomes, Toxicities, and Costs

Nicholas B. Vogelzang, MD, moderator of the press briefing where these findings were presented, agreed that the first study supports intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) as the current standard of care. With costs of health care increasing exponentially, it is important to establish the...

prostate cancer

Prostate Cancer Studies Compare Outcomes, Toxicities, and Costs

Patients with prostate cancer are treated with various forms of radiotherapy and/or radical prostatectomy with little comparative data to inform treatment selection. Two studies presented at the 2012 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium attempt to address that gap. In one study of men with localized...

prostate cancer

New Biomarker Predicts Survival in Advanced Prostate Cancer

Researchers at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center have developed the Bone Scan Index (BSI), which is the first quantitative imaging response biomarker that can assess response to treatment and prognosticates for survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Based on Bone ...

prostate cancer

SELECT Trial Update: Vitamin E Fails to Prevent Prostate Cancer in Healthy Men, Appears to Increase Risk

Supplements touted as preventing prostate cancer may turn out to be dangerous, as is evident from updated results of the largest long-term prevention trial, called the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). Final analysis of SELECT showed that, compared to placebo, vitamin E alone ...

prostate cancer

Short-term Hormone Therapy Did Not Increase Risk of Cardiovascular Death in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer, RTOG 94-08 Trial Finds

Short-term androgen deprivation therapy does not appear to increase cardiovascular mortality in men with clinically localized prostate cancer, according to a post hoc analysis of a large Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-sponsored clinical trial.1 “Our study analyzes data from a large...

bladder cancer

Study Shows Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy to be a Viable Strategy for Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer

Combined-modality therapy provides a bladder-sparing alternative to radical cystectomy with comparable outcomes in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, according to a pooled analysis of six Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials.1 The study included 468 patients and showed that...

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