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gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer

Postoperative Chemotherapy vs Chemoradiotherapy in Resectable Gastric Cancer

In the Scandinavian phase III CRITICS trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Cats et al found no benefit of postoperative chemoradiotherapy vs chemotherapy among patients with gastric cancer who had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Compliance with postoperative regimens was poor in both groups....

issues in oncology
survivorship

ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline Update: Fertility Preservation in Patients With Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Kutluk Oktay, MD, PhD, of Yale University School of Medicine, and colleagues, ASCO has issued a clinical practice guideline update on fertility preservation in adults and children with cancer. The update was informed by an update panel systematic...

lymphoma
skin cancer

Reciprocal Risks of Lymphoid Neoplasms and Cutaneous Melanoma

In a study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Herr et al found that patients with specific types of primary lymphoid neoplasms were at increased risk of second primary cutaneous melanoma, with the reciprocal association also being observed. Occurrence of second primary...

Use of Indwelling Pleural Catheter for Outpatient Talc Administration in Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion

In a UK study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Bhatnagar et al found that outpatient talc vs placebo administration via indwelling pleural catheter was associated with a higher rate of pleurodesis in patients with malignant pleural effusion. Study Details In the study, a target of ...

Crizotinib in East Asian Patients With ROS1-Positive Advanced NSCLC

In a phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Wu et al found that crizotinib (Xalkori) was highly active in East Asian patients with ROS1-positive advanced non­–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Study Details In the study, 127 patients from 37 sites in China, Japan,...

AACR 2018: Pilot Study of Neoadjuvant Nivolumab in Resectable NSCLC

In a pilot study reported at the 2018 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting (Abstract CT079) and in The New England Journal of Medicine by Forde et al, neoadjuvant nivolumab therapy was found to be feasible and active in patients with resectable non–small cell lung...

lymphoma

Axicabtagene Ciloleucel CAR T-Cell Therapy Active in Refractory Large B-Cell Lymphoma

As reported at the 2017 American Society of Hematology (ASH) Meeting & Exposition and in The New England Journal of Medicine by Sattva S. Neelapu, MD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and colleagues, a phase II trial has shown high activity of autologous anti-CD19 chimeric...

AACR 2018: Adjuvant Pembrolizumab in High-Risk Stage III Melanoma

As reported at the 2018 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting (Abstract CT001) and in The New England Journal of Medicine by Eggermont et al, the phase III EORTC 1325/KEYNOTE 054 trial has shown that adjuvant pembrolizumab (Keytruda) significantly prolonged recurrence-free...

AACR 2018: KEYNOTE-189: Addition of Pembrolizumab to Chemotherapy in Metastatic NSCLC

As reported at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Meeting (Abstract CT075) in the The New England Journal of Medicine by Gandhi et al, the first interim analysis of the phase III KEYNOTE-189 trial has shown significant improvement in overall and progression-free survival with the...

AACR 2018: CheckMate 227: Nivolumab/Ipilimumab vs Chemotherapy in NSCLC With High Tumor Mutational Burden Analysis

As reported at the 2018 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Meeting (Abstract CT077) and in The New England Journal of Medicine by Hellmann et al, an analysis from the phase III CheckMate 227 trial has shown that the combination of nivolumab (Opdivo) plus ipilimumab (Yervoy)...

Health-Related Quality-of-Life Analysis of Anti–PD-1 Therapy vs Chemotherapy in Advanced Urothelial Cancer

As reported by Vaughn et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, a health-related quality-of-life analysis from the phase III KEYNOTE-045 trial in previously treated advanced urothelial cancer showed that patients treated with the anti–programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapy...

Low-Dose Abiraterone With Food vs Standard-Dose Abiraterone in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Szmulewitz et al found that low-dose abiraterone (Zytiga) given with a low-fat meal was noninferior to standard-dose abiraterone in the fasting state with regard to reduction in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels among patients...

Tivantinib in Second-Line Treatment of MET-High Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

In the phase III METIV-HCC trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Rimassa et al found no improvement in overall survival with the investigational MET inhibitor tivantinib vs placebo in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with high MET expression previously treated with sorafenib...

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Liver Cancer Incidence in California

In a study among California residents reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Pham et al found that those designated as Asian/Pacific Islanders were at elevated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vs other racial/ethnic groups, with the highest risk observed among Southeast...

Minimal Residual Disease and Risk Stratification in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

In an analysis of the UK National Cancer Research Institute AML17 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Freeman et al found that detection of measureable/minimal residual disease (MRD) after first induction in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may be prognostically equivalent to partial...

ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline: Optimizing Anticancer Therapy in Metastatic Noncastrate Prostate Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Michael J. Morris, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medicine, and colleagues, ASCO has released a clinical practice guideline on optimizing anticancer therapy in men with metastatic noncastrate prostate cancer. To...

Larotrectinib in Pediatric Solid Tumors With TRK Gene Fusions

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Laetsch et al, phase I results from an ongoing phase I/II trial have shown activity of the TRK kinase inhibitor larotrectinib in pediatric patients with solid tumors harboring TRK fusions. Study Details In the study, 24 patients in a dose-escalation cohort...

cns cancers
skin cancer

Nivolumab/Ipilimumab or Nivolumab Alone in Melanoma Brain Metastases

In an Australian phase II trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Long et al found that the combination of nivolumab (Opdivo) and ipilimumab (Yervoy) and nivolumab alone showed intracranial activity in patients with melanoma brain metastases. Study Details In the open-label trial, 76 evaluable...

Targeted Sequencing Detection of Molecular Minimal Residual Disease and Prognosis in AML

In a study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Jongen-Lavrencic et al found that molecular minimal residual disease identified by next-generation sequencing during complete remission was associated with increased risk of relapse and mortality over 4 years of follow-up in patients with...

mTOR Inhibitor Plus Endocrine Therapy in Postmenopausal Women With Advanced ER-Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

In the phase II BOLERO-4 trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Royce et al found that the combination of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (Afinitor) and endocrine therapy was active in first-line treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor...

Adjuvant Chemotherapy Duration in Stage III Colon Cancer

In a preplanned pooled analysis of phase III trials reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Grothey et al did not establish noninferiority of 3 vs 6 months of adjuvant FOLFOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) or CAPOX (capecitabine and oxaliplatin) in disease-free survival in...

Updated Analysis of Obinutuzumab in Rituximab-Refractory Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Cheson et al, an updated analysis of the phase III GADOLIN trial showed an overall survival advantage with obinutuzumab (Gazyva) plus bendamustine induction followed by obinutuzumab maintenance vs bendamustine alone in patients with rituximab...

Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab vs Sunitinib in Previously Untreated Advanced RCC

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Motzer et al, the phase III CheckMate 214 trial has shown an overall survival advantage with nivolumab plus ipilimumab vs sunitinib in patients with previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Study Details In the open-label...

Total Neoadjuvant Therapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

In a retrospective cohort study reported in JAMA Oncology, Cercek et al found evidence supporting the use of total neoadjuvant therapy as an effective option in locally advanced rectal cancer. Study Details The study involved data on 811 patients presenting with locally advanced rectal cancer (T3 ...

Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiac Events, and Survival in Patients With Breast Cancer Enrolled in SWOG Clinical Trials

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hershman et al found that each additional baseline cardiovascular disease risk factor was associated with increased risk for cardiac events and death among Medicare patients who had been enrolled in SWOG trials in breast cancer. Study...

gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer

Anti–PD-1 Immunotherapy in Previously Treated Gastric Cancer

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Fuchs et al, pembrolizumab (Keytruda) showed activity in patients with previously treated advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer in the phase II KEYNOTE-059 trial. Study Details In the study, 259 patients from sites in 16 countries who had disease...

First-Line Avelumab in Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma

In a preplanned interim analysis of a phase II trial (JAVELIN Merkel 200 part B) reported in JAMA Oncology, D’Angelo et al found that avelumab was active in the first-line treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Avelumab was approved in March 2017 for treatment of patients aged ≥ 12 ...

skin cancer

Encorafenib Plus Binimetinib Improves Progression-Free Survival vs Vemurafenib in Advanced BRAF-Mutant Melanoma

IN THE PHASE III COLUMBUS trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Reinhard Dummer, MD, of University Hospital Zurich, and colleagues found that the combination of the BRAF inhibitor encorafenib and the MEK inhibitor binimetinib improved progression-free survival vs vemurafenib (Zelboraf) in...

Immunotherapy in Recurrent and Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

In an international phase II trial (Mayo Clinic Phase 2 Consortium–NCI-9742) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Ma et al found that nivolumab (Opdivo) was active in previously treated recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Study Details In the study, 44 evaluable...

Extended Follow-up of Nivolumab Treatment in Relapsed/Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma After Failure of Autologous HCT

As reported by Armand and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, extended follow-up of the phase II CheckMate 205 trial continues to show benefits and good tolerability of nivolumab (Opdivo) treatment in relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma after failure of autologous ...

MRI-Targeted vs Standard Biopsy in Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

In the international PRECISION trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Kasivisvanathan et al found that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted biopsy resulted in a significantly higher rate of diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer and a lower rate of diagnosis of...

hematologic malignancies
lymphoma

Brentuximab Vedotin Plus Bendamustine in Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma

A phase I/II trial has shown that the addition of brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris) to bendamustine is active in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. The study findings were reported in The Lancet Oncology by Owen A. O’Connor, MD, of the Center for Lymphoid Malignancies, Columbia University...

hematologic malignancies
multiple myeloma

Cardiovascular Toxicity and Carfilzomib Treatment in Multiple Myeloma

The proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (Kyprolis) has taken on an increasing role in the treatment of multiple myeloma, but new research from the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania shows the therapy may come with the risk of cardiovascular problems in a higher-than-expected...

hematologic malignancies
leukemia

Venetoclax in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Progressing After Ibrutinib

An interim analysis of a phase II trial reported by Jones et al in The Lancet Oncology indicates that venetoclax (Venclexta) produces a response in a high proportion of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) progressing on or after ibrutinib (Imbruvica) treatment. John C. Byrd, MD, of...

hematologic malignancies
lymphoma

BTK Inhibitor in Relapsed or Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma

A phase II study (ACE-LY-004) reported in The Lancet by Michael Wang, MD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and colleagues showed durable responses with the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor acalabrutinib (Calquence) in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma....

5-Year Follow-up of Patients Receiving Immunotherapy for Previously Treated Advanced NSCLC

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Gettinger et al, 5-year follow-up of patients receiving nivolumab (Opdivo) in a phase I study (CA209-003) in previously treated advanced non­–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has shown prolonged survival and durable responses in a subgroup...

Addition of Trastuzumab to Carboplatin/Paclitaxel in HER2-Positive Uterine Serous Carcinoma

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Fader et al found that the addition of trastuzumab (Herceptin) to carboplatin/paclitaxel improved progression-free survival among women with HER2-overexpressing uterine serous carcinoma. HER2 has been found to be overexpressed in...

Antibiotic Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Infection and Prevention of Metachronous Gastric Cancer

In a Korean study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Choi et al found that antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori was associated with a significant reduction in metachronous gastric cancer in patients who had undergone endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer or high-grade...

Long-Term Outcomes With Standard vs Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Michalski et al, long-term follow-up in the NRG Oncology/RTOG 0126 trial showed no significant difference in overall survival with dose-escalated vs standard-dose radiotherapy in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. High-dose radiotherapy was associated...

Modified XELIRI vs FOLFIRI as Second-Line Treatment for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

In an Asian phase III noninferiority trial (AXEPT) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Xu et al found that modified XELIRI (mXELIRI, capecitabine plus irinotecan) was noninferior in overall survival vs standard FOLFIRI (leucovorin, fluorouracil, and irinotecan), both given with or without bevacizumab...

Venetoclax Plus Rituximab in Relapsed/Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

In the phase III MURANO trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Seymour et al, the combination of the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax (Venclexta) with rituximab (Rituxan) markedly improved progression-free survival vs bendamustine plus rituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory...

Quality of Life With Chemohormonal Treatment in Prostate Cancer

In the E3805 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Morgans et al found that chemohormonal therapy with docetaxel and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) was associated with poorer quality of life (QOL) at 3 months but better QOL at 12 months vs ADT alone in metastatic hormone-sensitive ...

IKZF1 Deletion–Based Gene Profile and Outcome in Pediatric B-Cell Precursor ALL

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Stanulla et al found that a gene profile including somatic deletions in the lymphoid transcription factor–coding gene IKZF1 and deletions in other genes was associated with minimal residual disease (MRD)-dependent very-poor prognosis...

Outcomes With a Payer-Sponsored Medicare Advantage Cancer Management Program

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Hoverman et al found that a Texas Oncology–Aetna Medicare Advantage collaboration resulted in cost savings, good adherence to treatment pathways, and high patient satisfaction over 3 years. Study Details The collaborative...

Effect of Integrated Assessment and Management Tool on Pain Management in Cancer Center Inpatients

In a UK-based study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Fallon et al found that adding a clinician-delivered bedside pain assessment and management tool (Edinburgh Pain Assessment and Management Tool [EPAT]) to usual care improved some pain outcomes in cancer center inpatients. Study...

Analyses of Radiographic Progression-Free Survival in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Rathkopf et al, sensitivity analyses of radiographic progression-free survival in the PREVAIL trial comparing enzalutamide vs placebo in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer support use of the measure as a clinically meaningful endpoint in trials in this...

Genomic Copy Number Aberrations and Extremely Poor Survival in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

In a study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Depuydt et al identified two genomic copy number aberrations associated with risk of extremely poor survival in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Study Details The international collaborative study included normalized...

gynecologic cancers

Addition of Pazopanib to Paclitaxel in Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

In a phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology by Debra L. Richardson, MD, of Stephenson Cancer Center, Oklahoma University Health Science Center, and colleagues, the addition of pazopanib (Votrient) to paclitaxel did not improve progression-free survival among women with persistent or recurrent...

leukemia

Venetoclax in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Progressing After Ibrutinib

An interim analysis of a phase II trial reported by Jones et al in The Lancet Oncology indicates that venetoclax (Venclexta) produces a response in a high proportion of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) progressing on or after ibrutinib (Imbruvica) treatment. John C. Byrd, MD, of The ...

lymphoma

Bruton Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in Relapsed or Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma

A phase II study (ACE-LY-004) reported in The Lancet by Michael Wang, MD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and colleagues showed durable responses with the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor acalabrutinib (Calquence) in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma....

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