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Long-Term Outcome With Finasteride Using Medicare Claims Linked to the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

In a study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Unger et al linked data from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) with Medicare claims and found that finasteride treatment was associated with a maintained reduction in prostate cancer risk after discontinuation of the...

Encorafenib Plus Binimetinib vs Vemurafenib and Encorafenib Alone in Advanced BRAF-Mutant Melanoma

In the phase III COLUMBUS trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Dummer et al found that the combination of the BRAF inhibitor encorafenib and the MEK inhibitor binimetinib improved progression-free survival vs vemurafenib (Zelboraf) in patients with advanced BRAF V600–mutant melanoma....

Postoperative Chemoradiotherapy vs Radiotherapy in High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

In an Australia-New Zealand phase III trial (Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 05.01) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Porceddu et al found no benefit of adding carboplatin to postoperative radiation therapy in patients with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head...

Fruquintinib in Pretreated Advanced NSCLC

In a Chinese phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lu et al found that the VEGFR-1,-2, and-3 kinase inhibitor fruquintinib was active in patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who progressed after two prior chemotherapy regimens. Study Details ...

Effect of Single PSA-Based Screening on Prostate Cancer Mortality

In the UK-based CAP trial reported in JAMA, Martin et al found that a single prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening was not associated with better 10-year prostate cancer-specific survival vs the standard practice of no screening. Screening was associated with greater detection of prostate...

Clinically Indicated Genetic Counseling After Breast Cancer Diagnosis

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Katz et al found that less than half of patients with clinical indications received formal genetic counseling after breast cancer diagnosis. Study Details The study involved surveys of 5,080 patients aged 20 to 79 years diagnosed with early ...

MEK1/2 Inhibition in Metastatic Uveal Melanoma

In a phase III trial (SUMIT) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Carvajal et al found that the addition of the oral MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib to dacarbazine did not significantly improve progression-free survival in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. Study Details In the...

Alterations in DNA Damage Response and Repair Genes and Response to PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in Advanced Urothelial Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Teo et al found that alterations in DNA damage response and repair (DDR) genes, particularly known or likely deleterious alterations, were associated with response to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1...

Activity of Combined Immune Checkpoint and VEGF Inhibition as First-Line Therapy in Advanced Clear Cell RCC

In the dose-finding, dose-expansion phase Ib JAVELIN Renal 100 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Choueiri et al identified the maximum tolerated dose of the immune checkpoint inhibitor avelumab (Bavencio) in combination with the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor axitinib...

Immunotherapy in Heavily Pretreated Advanced NSCLC

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Garassino et al, the phase II ATLANTIC trial has shown durvalumab (Imfinzi) to be active in third- or later-line treatment of advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Study Details In the study, 444 patients from 139 sites in Asia, Europe, and North ...

Effect of High-Deductible Insurance Enrollment on Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Wharam et al found that women who were switched from low-deductible to high-deductible insurance policies had delays in diagnostic workup, early breast cancer diagnosis, and initiation of chemotherapy compared with those maintained on...

Treatment Trends for Lymph Node–Positive Penile Cancer

In a study of data from the National Cancer Database reported in JAMA Oncology, Joshi et al found that two-thirds of patients with node-positive nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the penis received lymph node dissection and approximately half received chemotherapy in recent years. ...

Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis: ASCO and CAP Joint Review

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology and the Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine by Jason D. Merker, MD, PhD, of Stanford University School of Medicine, and colleagues, ASCO and the College of American Pathologists (CAP) have issued a joint review on the status of...

MRI-Based Model for Prostate Biopsy Risk Stratification

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Mehralivand et al found that inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a predictive model may reduce unnecessary biopsies in men with suspected prostate cancer. Study Details In the study, a predictive model adding MRI-derived prostate volume...

Prognostic Factors for Complete Response to Ibrutinib in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

In an analysis of two pooled studies reported in JAMA Oncology, O’Brien et al found that a complete response to ibrutinib (Imbruvica) in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was more likely in patients receiving the agent as first-line therapy and in those without bulky disease....

Association of Early Palliative Care With Patient-Reported Outcomes and End-of-Life Care

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hoerger et al found that patients with a higher proportion of early palliative care visits addressing behavioral coping strategies had improvement in depression symptoms and quality of life. In addition, those with a high proportion of visits ...

Radioembolization vs Sorafenib in Asia-Pacific Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

In an investigator-initiated phase III SIRveNIB trial in Asia-Pacific patients reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Chow et al found no difference in overall survival with selective internal radiation therapy, or radioembolization, vs sorafenib (Nexavar) in patients with unresectable...

Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy With Nedaplatin vs Cisplatin in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Tang et al, a Chinese phase III noninferiority trial has shown similar progression-free survival with nedaplatin- vs cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage II to IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma, with nedaplatin being associated with fewer severe...

Survival With Brachytherapy-Based Radiotherapy or Radical Prostatectomy in High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer

In a study of National Cancer Database data reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Ennis et al found no significant survival differences between patients receiving brachytherapy-based radiotherapy vs radical prostatectomy in men with high-risk localized prostate cancer. Study Details The...

issues in oncology
symptom management

Study of Patient-Reported Symptom Burden in First Year After Cancer Diagnosis

In a Canadian retrospective population-based study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Bubis et al found that patients with cancer reported higher symptom scores at 1 month after diagnosis and identified several factors associated with higher symptom scores. Study Details The study...

hematologic malignancies
lymphoma

CAR T-Cell Therapy in Refractory B-Cell Lymphomas

  As reported at the 2017 American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting & Exposition and in The New England Journal of Medicine, Stephen J. Schuster, MD, of the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and colleagues found that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell...

hematologic malignancies

Effect of Azithromycin on Airflow Decline–Free Survival After Allogeneic HSCT

The French phase III ALLOZITHRO trial, stopped early due to excessive hematologic relapse in the azithromycin group, showed worse airflow decline–free survival with azithromycin vs placebo after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for hematologic malignancy. The study findings were...

Effect of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy in Node-Positive Breast Cancer

In an analysis of data from the Breast International Group (BIG) 02-98 trial reported in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Zeidan et al found that postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) vs no PMRT was associated with significantly reduced risk of locoregional...

Dasatinib for Pediatric Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chronic Phase

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Gore et al, a phase II trial has shown high response rates with dasatinib treatment in pediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome–positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). Findings in the trial supported the...

kidney cancer

Cabozantinib in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

ON DECEMBER 19, 2017, cabozantinib (Cabometyx) was granted regular approval for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma.1,2 Cabozantinib was initially granted approval in 2016 for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who had received prior antiangiogenic therapy. The...

leukemia

Bosutinib in Newly Diagnosed Chronic-Phase Philadelphia Chromosome–Positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

In the Clinic provides overviews of novel oncology agents, addressing indications, mechanisms of action, administration recommendations, safety profiles, and other essential information needed for the appropriate clinical use of these drugs. On December 19, 2017, bosutinib (Bosulif) was granted...

issues in oncology
survivorship

Interventions to Address Sexual Problems in People With Cancer: ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline Adaptation of CCO Guideline

AS REPORTED in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Jeanne Carter, PhD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and colleagues, ASCO has issued a clinical practice guideline adaptation of the Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) guideline on interventions to address sexual problems in people with cancer.1 ...

lung cancer

Osimertinib Improves Progression-Free Survival vs Standard EGFR Inhibitors in EGFR-Mutant NSCLC

AS REPORTED in The New England Journal of Medicine by Jean-Charles Soria, MD, PhD, of Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus and University Paris-Sud, and colleagues, the phase III FLAURA trial has shown a significant progression-free survival benefit with the third-generation epidermal growth factor...

solid tumors
gastrointestinal cancer

Lutetium Lu-177 Dotatate in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

On January 26, 2018, the radiolabeled somatostatin analog lutetium Lu-177 dotatate (Lutathera) was approved for the treatment of somatostatin receptor–positive gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, including foregut, midgut, and hindgut neuroendocrine tumors, in adults.1,2 Supporting...

PIK3CA Mutation and Prognosis in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Zardavas et al found that the prognostic effect of PIK3CA mutation in early breast cancer was reduced after adjustment for other prognostic factors. Study Details The study involved analysis of individual patient data from a pooled...

Neoadjuvant Therapy in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

In a phase III trial (BrighTNess) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Loibl et al found that the addition of the PARP inhibitor veliparib to carboplatin and paclitaxel in neoadjuvant therapy did not increase pathologic complete response rate in women with triple-negative breast cancer. Study Details ...

Gene-Expression Profiling Score for Predicting High- vs Low-Risk of Follicular Lymphoma Progression

As reported in The Lancet Oncology, Huet et al have developed a 23-gene expression profile that predicts risk of follicular lymphoma progression. Study Details In a training cohort consisting of a subgroup of patients from the PRIMA trial (in which rituximab [Rituxan] maintenance was evaluated...

multiple myeloma
symptom management

Analysis of Carfilzomib-Related Cardiotoxicity

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in Leukemia & Lymphoma, Shah et al identified the risk of cardiotoxicity among patients, most with multiple myeloma, receiving carfilzomib (Kyprolis) in clinical trials. Study Details The study included data from 4,164 patients who received...

Pretreatment Cancer-Associated Weight Loss and Prognosis

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Gannavarapu et al found that substantial unintentional weight loss prior to treatment is common among patients with cancer across stages of disease and is associated with poorer outcome. Study Details The retrospective cohort study included ...

Adjuvant Vemurafenib in Resected BRAF V600–Mutant Melanoma

In the international phase III BRIM8 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Maio et al found inconclusive evidence of benefit of adjuvant vemurafenib treatment in patients with BRAF V600–mutant melanoma.   Study Details In the double-blind trial, 498 patients with fully resected...

Circulating Tumor DNA and Pseudoprogression in Metastatic Melanoma Treated with Anti–PD-1 Antibodies

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Lee et al found that measurement of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can help distinguish between pseudoprogression (radiologic progression prior to response) and true progression in patients with metastatic melanoma receiving anti­–programmed cell death ...

Upfront Adjuvant Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy vs Aromatase Inhibitors After Tamoxifen in Hormone Receptor–Positive Early Breast Cancer

An Italian phase III trial (FATA-GIM3) has shown no difference in disease-free survival with 5 years of upfront adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy vs 2 years of tamoxifen followed by 3 years of aromatase inhibitor therapy in women with hormone receptor–positive early breast cancer. The...

Novel PI3Kδ Inhibitor in Relapsed or Refractory Hematologic Malignancies

In a phase I trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Burris et al determined the phase II dose of the next-generation PI3Kδ inhibitor umbralisib and found evidence of the agent’s activity in relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies. Umbralisib exhibits improved PI3K isoform...

Dexamethasone-Sparing Antiemetic Regimen in Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy

In a Japanese phase III noninferiority trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Ito et al found that dexamethasone could be spared on days 2 and 3 in an antiemetic regimen including the neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist aprepitant and palonosetron in patients receiving highly...

breast cancer
survivorship
symptom management

Internet-Delivered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Breast Cancer Survivors

In a Danish study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Zachariae et al found that an Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention improved insomnia among breast cancer survivors. Study Details In the study, 255 patients from a national sample of Danish breast...

solid tumors

Bevacizumab in Recurrent Glioblastoma

On December 5, 2017, bevacizumab (Avastin) was granted regular approval for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in adults.1 Bevacizumab was granted accelerated approval in May 2009 for use in treating patients with glioblastoma who had disease progression on prior therapy. Supporting Efficacy...

Use of Charity Assistance to Pay for Novel Oral Anticancer Agents

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Olszewski et al found that 36% of patients receiving novel oral anticancer agents in a Rhode Island academic research center received charity assistance to pay for treatment, including 47% of patients aged ≥ 65 years. Study Details The...

Chemoradiotherapy vs Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Radical Surgery in Locally Advanced Squamous Cervical Cancer

In an Indian single-center phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Gupta et al found that cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy improved disease-free survival vs neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical surgery in women with locally advanced squamous cervical cancer. Study Details...

Denosumab vs Zoledronic Acid in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma With Bone Disease

In a phase III trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Raje et al found that denosumab was noninferior to zoledronic acid in preventing skeletal-related events (SREs) in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients with bone disease. Study Details In the double-blind trial, 1,718 patients with at...

Adjuvant Chemotherapy for ER-Negative and ER-Positive Isolated Locoregional Recurrence of Breast Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Wapnir et al, the final analysis of the phase III CALOR trial showed benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in estrogen receptor (ER)–negative but not ER-positive isolated locoregional recurrence of breast cancer. Study Details In this open-label ...

Body Mass Index and Outcomes With Targeted Therapy, Immunotherapy, or Chemotherapy in Metastatic Melanoma

In a study reported in The Lancet Oncology, McQuade et al found that obesity was associated with improved outcomes in treatment of metastatic melanoma with targeted therapy or immunotherapy—but not chemotherapy—with a survival benefit appearing to be restricted to obese male patients....

issues in oncology
gastrointestinal cancer

Rehospitalization Patterns After Gastrointestinal Cancer Hospitalizations

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Manzano et al found that unplanned rehospitalization within 30 days after gastrointestinal (GI) cancer hospitalization was more likely after medical vs surgical index hospitalizations among older patients. Some risk factors for...

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy With or Without Regional Hyperthermia in Localized High-Risk Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Issels et al, long-term follow-up of the phase III EORTC 62961-ESHO 95 trial has shown improved outcomes with the addition of regional hyperthermia to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with high-risk soft-tissue sarcoma. Study Details In the open-label trial,...

Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy vs Radiotherapy in High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by de Boer et al, the phase III PORTEC-3 trial has shown no significant improvement in 5-year overall survival with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy vs radiotherapy alone in women with high-risk endometrial cancer. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, however, was associated...

Edoxaban vs Dalteparin in Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolism

In the phase III Hokusai VTE Cancer trial reported by Raskob et al in The New England Journal of Medicine, the direct-acting oral factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban proved noninferior to the low–molecular-weight heparin dalteparin in the composite outcome of recurrent venous thromboembolism or...

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