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gynecologic cancers

Novel Adverse Genomic Rearrangement Signature in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

As reported by Hillman et al in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, a novel genomic rearrangement signature associated with poorer overall survival has been identified in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Study Details In the study, clinical data and whole-genome sequencing results were ...

head and neck cancer

Combination Therapy for Advanced BRAF V600–Mutant Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

A phase II study reported by Subbiah et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology indicates activity of the combination of dabrafenib (Tafinlar) plus trametinib (Mekinist) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic BRAF V600–mutant anaplastic thyroid cancer. Study Details In the study,...

leukemia

MicroRNA Expression–Based Risk Model for Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lim et al have identified a microRNA expression–based risk model associated with event-free survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The study involved comprehensive miRNA sequencing of 1,362 pediatric AML samples, consisting of...

solid tumors

Factors Associated With Outcome in Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumors

In a St. Jude Adrenocortical Tumor Registry and Children’s Oncology Group study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Pinto et al found that a positive Ki67 labeling index was associated with a poorer outcome in children with adrenocortical tumors independent of germline TP53 mutation ...

lung cancer

Novel Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor for ALK- or ROS1-Rearranged NSCLC

A phase I trial has shown that the ALK and ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor lorlatinib is active in patients with advanced ALK- or ROS1-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including those with central nervous system (CNS) metastases and failure on at least two prior tyrosine kinase...

issues in oncology

Changes in Uninsured Status Among Nonelderly Cancer Patients Under the Affordable Care Act

In a research letter in JAMA Oncology, Soni et al reported reductions in the proportion of nonelderly adult cancer patients who were uninsured between 2010 and 2013 vs 2014, after institution of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Study Details The study used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology,...

head and neck cancer

ASCO Endorses ASTRO Guideline on Radiation Therapy for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Harry Quon, MD, of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and colleagues, ASCO has endorsed the recently published American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) evidence-based clinical practice guideline on radiation therapy for...

lung cancer

PanCan Risk Model for Lung Cancer Screening

Results of the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer (PanCan) study, reported in The Lancet Oncology by Tammemagi et al, indicate that the PanCan risk model is effective in identifying persons found to have early-stage lung cancer on low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening. Study Details ...

breast cancer

Complications and Patient Satisfaction After Breast Reconstruction in Women Receiving Radiotherapy

In a prospective cohort study reported by Jagsi et al in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, autologous reconstruction was associated with fewer complications and greater patient satisfaction vs implant approaches in women receiving postmastectomy radiotherapy. Study Details The...

survivorship

New Persistent Opioid Use After Curative-Intent Cancer Surgery

A study reported by Lee et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology indicates that approximately 10% of patients undergoing curative-intent surgery for cancer become new persistent opioid users. Study Details The study involved data from 68,463 patients from a national data set of insurance claims...

prostate cancer

HSD3B1 Genotype and Outcomes With ADT After Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Hearn et al found that the presence of the HSD3B1 (1245C) allele was associated with more rapid development of metastases in patients receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for biochemical recurrence after primary radiation therapy for localized prostate...

lymphoma

Final Results of German Trial of PET-Guided Treatment in Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma

Final results of the German Hodgkin Study Group phase III HD18 trial, reported in The Lancet by Borchmann et al, showed no benefit of adding rituximab (Rituxan) to escalated BEACOPP (eBEACOPP; bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) in...

breast cancer

ASCO/CCO Focused Guideline Update on Role of Bone-Modifying Agents in Metastatic Breast Cancer

As reported by Catherine Van Poznak, MD, of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, ASCO and Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) have collaborated in providing a focused update for the ASCO clinical practice guideline on the role of bone-modifying agents in...

issues in oncology

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cancer-Specific Survival in California

In a study using California Cancer Registry data reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Ellis et al found that the stage at diagnosis was the greatest contributor to racial/ethnic disparities in cancer-specific survival, with neighborhood socioeconomic status and marital status also being...

gynecologic cancers

CD8-Positive Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Survival in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Goode et al in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis Consortium, higher levels of cytotoxic CD8-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were associated with significantly improved overall survival among women with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. Study Details The ...

lung cancer

2-Year Survival Outcomes With Immunotherapy in Advanced NSCLC

Analysis of 2-year overall survival with nivolumab (Opdivo) vs docetaxel in the phase III CheckMate 017 and 057 trials showed a continued survival benefit with nivolumab in patients with previously treated advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The findings were reported by Horn et al...

breast cancer

Potential Risk Activities and Breast Cancer–Related Lymphedema in Patients Undergoing Bilateral Surgery

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Asdourian et al found that several factors considered to pose an increased risk of lymphedema were not significantly associated with the occurrence of lymphedema among women undergoing bilateral breast cancer surgery. Study Details In the...

prostate cancer

Combination Therapy for Docetaxel-Pretreated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

The phase III AFFINITY trial has shown no survival benefit with the addition of the antisense oligonucleotide custirsen to cabazitaxel (Jevtana)/prednisone in patients with metastatic prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel. These findings were reported in The Lancet Oncology by Beer et...

palliative care

Changes in Opioid Prescription for Cancer Patients Referred to Outpatient Palliative Care

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Haider et al found that the median morphine equivalent daily dose decreased significantly among cancer patients seen at MD Anderson Cancer Center’s outpatient palliative care clinic between 2010 and 2015. Use of hydrocodone decreased...

hematologic malignancies

Anti–T-Lymphocyte Globulin and Chronic GVHD-Free Survival in Unrelated Myeloablative HCT

A double-blind phase III trial has shown no benefit of anti–T-lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) vs placebo on chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD)-free survival in patients undergoing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The study...

breast cancer

Extended Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy After Sequential Endocrine Therapy

In the Dutch phase III DATA trial reported in The Lancet Oncology by Tjan-Heinjen et al, a nonsignificant disease-free survival advantage was found for 6 vs 3 years of adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen in hormone receptor–positive early breast cancer....

breast cancer

MAF Amplification and Outcomes With Adjuvant Zoledronic Acid in Early Breast Cancer

An analysis from the phase III AZURE trial has shown that MAF-negative status was associated with a benefit and MAF-positive status, with a detriment of adjuvant zoledronic acid in early breast cancer. The analysis was reported by Coleman et al in The Lancet Oncology. Study Details The current...

skin cancer

Long-Term Outcomes With BRAF and MEK Inhibition in BRAF V600–Mutant Metastatic Melanoma

As reported by Long et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, a 5-year landmark analysis of patients receiving dabrafenib (Tafinlar) and trametinib (Mekinist) for BRAF V600–mutant metastatic melanoma shows persistent overall and progression-free survival benefits. Study Details The...

kidney cancer

Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Expression and Prognosis in Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Ho et al found that tumor-based enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) gene or protein expression was independently predictive of prognosis in localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma. EZH2 is a chromatin remodeler implicated in the pathogenesis of...

cns cancers
survivorship

Predicting Risk of Subsequent CNS Tumors in Survivors of Childhood Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Wang et al have developed a model for predicting risk of subsequent central nervous system (CNS) tumors in survivors of childhood cancer. Study Details In the study, matched childhood cancer survivors with (n = 82) and without (n = 228) subsequent...

multiple myeloma

Carfilzomib Improves Overall Survival vs Bortezomib in Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma

AT A PRESPECIFIED interim analysis, the phase III ENDEAVOR trial has shown a significant overall survival benefit for carfilzomib (Kyprolis) vs bortezomib (Velcade) in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, as reported by Meletios A. Dimopoulos, MD, of the National and Kapodistrian...

skin cancer

Regional Radiation Therapy Reduces Risk of Regional Recurrence in Node-Positive Cutaneous Melanoma

IN A LARGE single-institution study reported in the Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Tobin Strom, MD, and colleagues found that regional radiotherapy was associated with a reduced risk of regional recurrence in patients with node-positive cutaneous melanoma, including those...

lung cancer

No Progression-Free Survival Benefit With First-Line Nivolumab vs Chemotherapy in Advanced PD-L1–Positive NSCLC

AS REPORTED BY David P. Carbone, MD, PhD, of The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, and colleagues in The New England Journal of Medicine, the phase III CheckMate 026 trial has shown no progression-free survival benefit for first-line nivolumab (Opdivo) vs platinum-based...

lung cancer

Phase III Trial Shows No Survival Benefit to Adding First-Line Ipilimumab to Chemotherapy in Advanced Squamous NSCLC

IN A PHASE III trial reported by Ramaswamy Govindan, MD, of Washington University School of Medicine, and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the addition of first-line ipilimumab (Yervoy) to paclitaxel/carboplatin did not improve overall survival in patients with advanced squamous...

symptom management

ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline Update on Antiemetics in Patients With Cancer

AS REPORTED BY Paul J. Hesketh, MD, of Lahey Hospital and Medical Center, Burlington, Massachusetts, and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, ASCO has updated its clinical practice guideline on the use of antiemetics in patients with cancer.1 The update was based on an expert panel...

skin cancer

Nivolumab/Ipilimumab in Patients With Advanced Melanoma Who Did or Did Not Discontinue Induction Treatment due to Adverse Events

IN A RETROSPECTIVE pooled analysis of the CheckMate 069 and 067 studies reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Dirk Schadendorf, MD, of the University Hospital Essen and the German Cancer Consortium, and colleagues found little difference in the efficacy of combined nivolumab (Opdivo) and...

solid tumors
lung cancer

Tremelimumab in Previously Treated Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma

In the randomized phase IIB DETERMINE trial, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor tremelimumab did not improve overall survival vs placebo as second- or third-line treatment of relapsed malignant mesothelioma. These findings were reported in The Lancet Oncology by...

skin cancer

Nivolumab Treatment Beyond Disease Progression in Advanced Melanoma

In a retrospective analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Georgina V. Long, MBBS, PhD, of the Melanoma Institute Australia, North Sydney, and colleagues found that a substantial proportion of patients with advanced melanoma derived benefit from continued nivolumab (Opdivo) treatment after Response...

supportive care

Sperm Banking for Adolescent Males With Newly Diagnosed Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Klosky et al identified factors associated with sperm banking among adolescent males with newly diagnosed cancer who were at increased risk for treatment-related fertility loss. The study included 146 adolescents aged 13 to 22 years (mean...

gastrointestinal cancer

Survival in Patients Treated With Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy After Resection of Gastric Cancer

In the CALGB 80101/Alliance trial, no difference in overall survival was found for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy with epirubicin, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (ECF) vs fluorouracil and leucovorin (5-FU/LV) after curative resection of gastric cancer. The findings were reported in the Journal of Clinical ...

sarcoma

Immunotherapy for Advanced Soft-Tissue and Bone Sarcoma

The phase II SARC028 trial has shown activity of pembrolizumab (Keytruda) in some subtypes of advanced sarcoma. These findings were reported by Tawbi et al in The Lancet Oncology. Study Details In the study, 84 patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcoma aged ≥ 18 years (n = 42) or bone sarcoma ...

skin cancer

Combination Therapy for Patients With Advanced Unresectable Melanoma

A phase II study has shown that the addition of the oncolytic viral agent talimogene laherparepvec (Imlygic) to ipilimumab (Yervoy) significantly increased the response rate in patients with advanced unresectable melanoma. These findings were reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Chesney...

lung cancer

Outcomes in Patients With Metastatic Lung Cancer Receiving PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors With Thoracic Radiotherapy

In a research letter to JAMA Oncology, Hwang et al detailed the outcomes of patients with metastatic lung cancer receiving an inhibitor of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) with or without thoracic radiotherapy at Massachusetts General Hospital. Study Details The...

lymphoma

PI3K Inhibition in Relapsed or Refractory Indolent Lymphoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Dreyling et al, the phase II CHRONOS-1 trial has shown a high response rate and durable responses with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor copanlisib (Aliqopa) in adults with relapsed or refractory indolent lymphoma who had received...

breast cancer

Long-Term Use of Long-Acting Insulin Analogs and Breast Cancer Risk in Type 2 Diabetes

A study in the UK population has shown that long-term use of the long-acting insulin glargine was associated with increased risk of breast cancer among women with type 2 diabetes. The findings were reported by Wu et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Study Details The study involved a...

gastrointestinal cancer

Immunotherapy for Previously Treated Advanced Gastric Cancer

In an Asian phase III trial (ONO-4538-12, ATTRACTION-2) reported in The Lancet, Kang et al found that nivolumab (Opdivo) produced an improvement in overall survival vs placebo in patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer who had disease refractory to or who were intolerant...

skin cancer

Single-Center Study of Adjuvant Beta-Blocker Therapy for Cutaneous Melanoma

An Italian single-center prospective cohort study suggests that adjuvant treatment with the beta-blocker propranolol significantly reduces the risk of melanoma recurrence in patients with stage IB to IIIA cutaneous disease. The findings were reported in JAMA Oncology by De Giorgi et al. Preclinical ...

lymphoma

Maintenance Therapy After ASCT in Younger Patients With Mantle Cell Lymphoma

In a French phase III trial, maintenance rituximab (Rituxan) improved event-free survival vs observation after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in younger patints with mantle cell lymphoma. These findings were reported by Le Gouill et al in The New England Journal of Medicine. Study...

lung cancer

Addition of EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor to Chemotherapy in Resistant Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

As reported by Mok et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, overall survival analysis of the phase III IMPRESS trial indicated a poorer outcome when adding gefitinib (Iressa) vs placebo to chemotherapy after disease progression on first-line gefitinib in epidermal growth factor receptor...

solid tumors

Incidence of Endocrine Dysfunction With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Barroso-Sousa et al evaluated the incidence of endocrine dysfunction in patients receiving currently approved immune checkpoint inhibitors for various advanced solid tumors. Patients who received combination therapy were found to...

bladder cancer

First-Line Immunotherapy for Cisplatin-Ineligible Patients With Advanced Urothelial Cancer

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Balar et al, first-line pembrolizumab (Keytruda) produced durable responses in cisplatin-ineligible patients with locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial cancer in the phase II KEYNOTE-052 trial. The trial supported the accelerated approval...

gastroesophageal cancer

Adjuvant Chemotherapy vs Observation After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy and Resection in Gastroesophageal Cancer

In a propensity score–matched analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Mokdad et al found that adjuvant chemotherapy had a survival benefit vs observation after preoperative chemoradiotherapy and resection in patients with locally advanced gastroesophageal cancer. Study Details The study...

lymphoma

Baseline Cardiovascular and Heart Failure Risks in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

In a study in the Danish population reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Salz et al found that preexisting cardiovascular conditions were associated with an increased risk of heart failure in survivors of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The standard use of anthracycline chemotherapy ...

breast cancer

Initial Treatment With CDK4/6 Inhibitor and Aromatase Inhibitor for Advanced Breast Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Goetz et al, an interim analysis in the phase III MONARCH 3 trial has shown a significant progression-free survival benefit with the addition of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor abemaciclib (Verzenio) to a nonsteroidal aromatase...

prostate cancer

Comorbidity and Prostate Cancer–Specific and Other-Cause Mortality

A Swedish population-based observational study has shown that comorbidity is a significant factor in other-cause but not prostate cancer–specific mortality after adjustment for patient, tumor, and treatment factors among men with prostate cancer. The findings were reported in the Journal of...

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