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Vitamin D Levels and Colorectal Cancer Risk

In a study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, McCullough et al found reduced risk for colorectal cancer with increasing levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D). Study Details The study was an international pooling project using participant-level data from 17...

Addition of Panitumumab to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Primary HER2-Negative Inflammatory Breast Cancer

In a single-center phase II study reported in JAMA Oncology, Matsuda et al found that adding the EGFR inhibitor panitumumab (Vectibix) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy produced high pathologic complete response (pCR) rates in patients with primary triple-negative inflammatory breast cancer. Study...

ASCO Practice Census Survey Identifies Challenges Facing U.S. Oncology Practices

As reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice by Kirkwood et al, the recent ASCO Oncology Practice Census survey has identified a number of factors considered to be challenging by oncology practices in the United States. Study Details ASCO used Medicare Physician Compare data to characterize...

Sodium Thiosulfate to Prevent Cisplatin-Induced Hearing Loss in Pediatric Standard-Risk Hepatoblastoma

In a phase III International Liver Tumor Strategy Group trial (SIOPEL 6) reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Brock et al found that sodium thiosulfate reduced cisplatin-induced hearing loss in pediatric patients with standard-risk hepatoblastoma. Study Details The trial enrolled a...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

MAGE-A3 Immunotherapeutic as Adjuvant Therapy for MAGE-A3–Positive Stage III Melanoma

In the phase III DERMA trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Dreno et al found that an adjuvant MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic provided no benefit vs placebo in patients with resected MAGE-A3–positive stage IIIB or IIIC melanoma. Development of the agent for use in melanoma has been stopped. The ...

breast cancer
immunotherapy

Trastuzumab Biosimilar vs Reference Trastuzumab in HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer

In the phase III LILAC equivalence trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, von Minckwitz et al found similar efficacy and safety with the trastuzumab biosimilar ABP 980 vs reference trastuzumab (Herceptin) in HER2-positive early breast cancer. On local review, the risk difference and risk ratio (RR) ...

ERBB Mutations and Outcomes With Afatinib and Erlotinib in Squamous NSCLC

In an analysis of the LUX-Lung 8 trial in squamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) reported in JAMA Oncology, Goss et al found that outcomes among patients treated with afatinib (Gilotrif) were better for those with vs without ERBB mutations. The LUX-Lung 8 trial showed that afatinib was...

Long-Term Outcomes With Dasatinib Plus Intensive Chemotherapy in Pediatric/Young Adult Ph-Positive ALL

In an analysis of the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) AALL0622 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Slayton et al found that adding dasatinib (Sprycel) to intensive chemotherapy produced good long-term outcomes in pediatric/young adult patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia ...

gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer
immunotherapy

Second-Line Pembrolizumab vs Paclitaxel in Advanced Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

As reported in The Lancet by Shitara et al, the phase III KEYNOTE-061 trial showed no significant overall survival benefit with pembrolizumab vs paclitaxel in patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer progressing on platinum-fluoropyrimidine treatment with programmed cell...

solid tumors
supportive care

Prognostic Model for Malignant Pleural Effusion

As reported in The Lancet Oncology, Psallidas et al developed a model that is predictive of 3-month survival in patients with malignant pleural effusion. Study Details The PROMISE study involved an analysis of 5 independent data sets from randomized trials to discover, validate, and prospectively ...

issues in oncology
survivorship

Genetic Risk for Subsequent Neoplasms in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Wang et al found that germline pathogenic/likely pathogenic mutations significantly contributed to the risk of subsequent neoplasms in long-term survivors of childhood cancers. Study Details The study involved whole-genome sequencing on...

Addition of Ribociclib to Fulvestrant Improves Progression-Free Survival in HR-Positive, HER2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer

As reported by Slamon and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the phase III MONALEESA-3 trial has shown significant improvement in progression-free survival with the addition of the CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib (Kisqali) to fulvestrant (Faslodex) in hormone receptor (HR)-positive,...

CAR T Cells Targeting B-Cell Maturation Antigen in Poor-Prognosis Relapsed Multiple Myeloma

In a first-in-human study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Brudno et al found that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) autologous T cells targeting B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) produced responses in patients with poor-prognosis relapsed multiple myeloma. Study Details The current...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Outcomes by Chemotherapy Backbone for Obinutuzumab vs Rituximab in Previously Untreated Follicular Lymphoma

In an analysis of the GALLIUM trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hiddemann and colleagues found that obinutuzumab (Gazyva) appeared to provide consistent progression-free survival benefit vs rituximab (Rituxan) in previously untreated follicular lymphoma, irrespective of which...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Addition of Atezolizumab to Bevacizumab and Chemotherapy in First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Nonsquamous NSCLC

As reported at the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting and in The New England Journal of Medicine by Socinski et al, the phase III IMpower150 trial has shown that the addition of atezolizumab (Tecentriq) to bevacizumab (Avastin) plus chemotherapy significantly improved progression-free and overall survival in ...

Quizartinib in Relapsed or Refractory AML

In a phase II trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Cortes et al found that the next-generation FLT3 inhibitor quizartinib had good activity in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML), with greater activity in patients with FLT3-ITD mutations. Study Details The study...

Long-Term Results of Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Premenopausal Breast Cancer

In an analysis of long-term outcomes in the SOFT and TEXT trials reported at the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting and in The New England Journal of Medicine, Francis et al found that the addition of ovarian suppression to adjuvant tamoxifen significantly improved 8-year rates of disease-free and overall...

prostate cancer

Bipolar Androgen Therapy After Disease Progression in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

In a single-center phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Teply et al found that bipolar androgen therapy can induce prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and resensitization to enzalutamide (Xtandi) in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer whose disease progressed on ...

issues in oncology

California Trends in Cancer Survival by Health Insurance Status

A study using California Cancer Registry data showed that survival improvements in patients with cancer between 1997 and 2014 have largely been limited to those with private or Medicare insurance. These findings were reported in JAMA Oncology by Libby Ellis, PhD, of the Cancer Prevention Institute...

cns cancers

Addition of Tumor-Treating Fields to Maintenance Temozolomide in Glioblastoma

The final results of a phase III trial reported by Roger Stupp, MD, of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, and colleagues in JAMA indicate that adding antimitotic treatment with tumor-treating fields to maintenance temozolomide is associated with improved...

Ibrutinib in Relapsed or Refractory Follicular Lymphoma

In the phase II DAWN study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Gopal et al found that ibrutinib (Imbruvica) produced a response in a minority of patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma. Study Details In the study, 110 patients with ≥ 2 prior lines of treatment...

Suboptimal Use of Initial Chemotherapy in Newly Diagnosed AML

In a study of National Cancer Database data reported in Blood Advances, Bhatt et al found that 25% of patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) did not receive initial chemotherapy, despite evidence that chemotherapy is associated with a survival benefit and improvement in symptoms ...

ASCO/CAP Clinical Practice Guideline Focused Update on HER2 Testing in Breast Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Antonio C. Wolff, MD, of Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, and colleagues, ASCO and the College of American Pathologists (CAP) have issued a clinical practice guideline focused update on HER2 testing in breast cancer....

Activity of Ivosidenib in IDH1-Mutated Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

As reported at the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting and in The New England Journal of Medicine by DiNardo et al, early-phase testing has shown activity of ivosidenib, an oral small-molecule inhibitor of mutant IDH1, in patients with IDH1-mutated relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). IDH1...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline: Optimizing Anticancer Therapy in Metastatic Non-castrate Prostate Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Michael J. Morris, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medicine, and colleagues, ASCO has released a clinical practice guideline on optimizing anticancer therapy in men with metastatic non-castrate prostate cancer.1 To ...

Once- vs Twice-Weekly Carfilzomib in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

An interim analysis of the phase III ARROW trial reported in The Lancet Oncology by Moreau et al indicated that a higher-dose once-weekly schedule of carfilzomib was associated with prolonged progression-free survival vs a twice-weekly schedule in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Activity of the PD-1 Inhibitor Cemiplimab in Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

As reported at the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting (Abstract 9519) and in The New England Journal of Medicine by Migden et al, results of early-phase testing show activity of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor cemiplimab in advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Currently, no...

hepatobiliary cancer
immunotherapy

KEYNOTE-224: Pembrolizumab in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Pretreated With Sorafenib

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Zhu et al, the phase II KEYNOTE-224 study has shown activity of pembrolizumab in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pretreated with sorafenib. Study Details In the study, 104 eligible patients who were intolerant of or progressed on sorafenib were...

Final Overall Survival Analysis of First-Line Crizotinib vs Chemotherapy in Advanced ALK-Positive NSCLC

As reported by Solomon and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the final overall survival results of the phase III PROFILE 1014 trial showed evidence of survival benefit of first-line crizotinib (Xalkori) vs chemotherapy in advanced ALK-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ...

Informed Consent Issues for Patients With Advanced Cancer in Phase I Trials

As reported by Hlubocky et al in the Journal of Oncology Practice, oncologists may not provide patients with advanced cancer participating in phase I clinical trials with sufficient information about prognosis and purposes of phase I testing during enrollment discussions. Study Details The study...

breast cancer
survivorship

Low-Fat Dietary Intervention and Overall Survival After Breast Cancer Diagnosis

In an analysis from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Chlebowski et al found that overall survival after the diagnosis of incident breast cancer was improved in women in the reduced-fat dietary intervention group vs control group, reflecting reduced...

Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Stage III NSCLC

In a Dutch phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, De Ruysscher et al found that prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) prevented symptomatic brain metastases vs observation in patients with stage III non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving treatment with curative...

ASCO Guideline for Geriatric Oncology: Practical Assessment and Management of Vulnerabilities in Older Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Supriya G. Mohile, MD, of the University of Rochester Medical Center, and colleagues, ASCO has produced a guideline on the practical assessment and management of vulnerabilities in geriatric patients receiving chemotherapy. To develop the...

Total Neoadjuvant Therapy for Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

In a single-institution phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Murphy et al found that total neoadjuvant therapy with FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil [5-FU], irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) and individualized chemoradiotherapy was associated with a high R0 resection rate and good outcomes in patients with ...

Opportunities, Issues, and Challenges for Biosimilars in Oncology

In an article in The New England Journal of Medicine, Lyman et al reviewed opportunities, issues, and challenges posed by the advent of biosimilar medications, focusing on biosimilars in cancer treatment. Although these agents could help to meet the health-care goals of high quality care with cost...

Lung Cancer Incidence in Young Women vs Men in the United States

In a study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Jemal et al found that the incidence of lung cancer in young white and Hispanic women is now higher than that in men in the US. Study Details The study involved analysis of data from the North American Association of Central Cancer...

breast cancer
lung cancer

Characteristics and Screening of Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer and NSCLC

In a research letter published in JAMA Oncology, Cagney et al found that brain metastases were more advanced and more likely to be symptomatic in patients with breast cancer compared to patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Current guidelines recommend magnetic resonance imaging...

ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline Focused Update: Selection of Optimal Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy for Early Breast Cancer

As reported by Neelima Denduluri, MD, of US Oncology Network, Virginia Cancer Specialists, and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, ASCO has issued a focused update on the clinical practice guideline on optimal chemotherapy and targeted therapy in early breast cancer. To develop the...

Analysis of Intracranial Response to Brigatinib in ALK-Positive NSCLC With Brain Metastases

In an analysis of two clinical trials reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Camidge et al found that brigatinib (Alunbrig) produced high intracranial response rates and good intracranial progression-free survival in patients with ALK-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and...

Automated Bone Scan Index and Overall Survival in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

In a secondary analysis of the phase III 10TASQ10 trial comparing tasquinimod vs placebo in chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, the automated Bone Scan Index (aBSI) was shown to be predictive of overall survival. The findings were reported in JAMA Oncology by...

Rivaroxaban vs Dalteparin in Patients With Venous Thromboembolism

In a UK pilot trial (SELECT-D) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Young et al found that the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban was associated with a lower rate of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) but a higher rate of clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding compared with the...

Risk-Adapted Treatment for Young Children With Medulloblastoma

In a phase II trial (SJYC07) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Robinson et al found that risk-adapted treatment did not improve event-free survival in young children with medulloblastoma. Analysis by methylation status showed superior outcome in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup. Study Details The ...

leukemia
lymphoma
immunotherapy

Rapid Progression of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma During PD-1 Inhibitor Therapy

In a letter to the editor in The New England Journal of Medicine, Ratner et al describe rapid progression of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in three consecutive patients receiving programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor therapy with nivolumab (Opdivo). As stated by the authors,...

solid tumors
gynecologic cancers

Addition of Pazopanib to Paclitaxel in Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

In a phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology by Debra L. Richardson, MD, of Stephenson Cancer Center, Oklahoma University Health Science Center, and colleagues, the addition of pazopanib (Votrient) to paclitaxel did not improve progression-free survival among women with persistent or recurrent...

solid tumors
issues in oncology
geriatric oncology
lung cancer

Chemoradiation in Elderly Patients With Stage III NSCLC Improves Overall Survival

Elderly patients with stage III non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) showed improved overall survival when treated with chemoradiation compared with definitive radiation alone, according to findings published by Eric D. Miller, MD, PhD, of The Ohio State University, Columbus, and colleagues in the...

solid tumors
issues in oncology
geriatric oncology

Does Warfarin Have Anticancer Potential in Persons Older Than Age 50?

A Norwegian population–based cohort study indicated that the use of warfarin was associated with a reduced risk of cancer overall and site-specific cancers among patients aged > 50 years. The findings were reported in JAMA Internal Medicine by Haaland et al. As noted by the investigators,...

solid tumors

Phase I Study of ERK1/2 Inhibitor in Advanced Solid Tumors

Ulixertinib (BVD-523) is an ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor with potent preclinical activity in BRAF- and RAS-mutant cell lines. Now, a multicenter phase I study investigating its safety and efficacy in the treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors has found that ulixertinib has an acceptable...

solid tumors
skin cancer
head and neck cancer

Dabrafenib Plus Trametinib for Thyroid Cancer, Melanoma With BRAF Mutations

On May 4, 2018, dabrafenib (Tafinlar) and trametinib (Mekinist) in combination was granted approval for treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer with BRAF V600E mutation and no satisfactory locoregional treatment options.1-3 Dabrafenib is not indicated for ...

solid tumors
kidney cancer

CheckMate 214: Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab Improves Survival vs Sunitinib in Advanced Renal Cell Cancer

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Robert J. Motzer, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and colleagues, the phase III CheckMate 214 trial has shown an overall survival advantage with nivolumab (Opdivo) plus ipilimumab (Yervoy) vs sunitinib (Sutent) in patients with...

solid tumors
skin cancer

Durable Complete Responses After Discontinuation of Pembrolizumab in Metastatic Melanoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Caroline Robert, MD, PhD, of Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France, and colleagues, a high proportion of patients with metastatic melanoma achieving a complete response on pembrolizumab (Keytruda) in the phase Ib KEYNOTE-001 trial maintained...

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