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breast cancer
survivorship

Low-Fat Dietary Intervention and Overall Survival After Breast Cancer Diagnosis

In an analysis from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Chlebowski et al found that overall survival after the diagnosis of incident breast cancer was improved in women in the reduced-fat dietary intervention group vs control group, reflecting reduced...

breast cancer
lung cancer

Characteristics and Screening of Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer and NSCLC

In a research letter published in JAMA Oncology, Cagney et al found that brain metastases were more advanced and more likely to be symptomatic in patients with breast cancer compared to patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Current guidelines recommend magnetic resonance imaging...

Risk-Adapted Treatment for Young Children With Medulloblastoma

In a phase II trial (SJYC07) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Robinson et al found that risk-adapted treatment did not improve event-free survival in young children with medulloblastoma. Analysis by methylation status showed superior outcome in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup. Study Details The ...

solid tumors
skin cancer
head and neck cancer

Dabrafenib Plus Trametinib for Thyroid Cancer, Melanoma With BRAF Mutations

On May 4, 2018, dabrafenib (Tafinlar) and trametinib (Mekinist) in combination was granted approval for treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer with BRAF V600E mutation and no satisfactory locoregional treatment options.1-3 Dabrafenib is not indicated for ...

Validation of the Consensus Immunoscore for Classification of Colon Cancer

As reported in The Lancet by Pagès et al, an international collaboration has validated the consensus Immunoscore for colon cancer as a predictive tool for recurrence of disease. Study Details An international consortium of 14 centers in 13 countries, led by the Society for Immunotherapy of ...

colorectal cancer

Risk of Recurrence in Stage III Colon Cancer According to RAS- and BRAF-Mutation Status

In a study in the PETACC-8 trial population reported in JAMA Oncology, Julien Taieb, MD, PhD, of the Université Paris Descartes, and colleagues found that the risk of recurrence in patients with stage III colon cancer differed for the primary tumor location according to RAS- and BRAF-mutation...

head and neck cancer

Number of Metastatic Lymph Nodes and Survival in Hypopharyngeal/Laryngeal Cancer

A study using National Cancer Database data has shown that the number of metastatic nodes is a primary independent factor associated with an increased mortality risk in patients with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers. The study was reported in JAMA Oncology by Allen S. Ho, MD, of the Samuel...

breast cancer

Hormonal Contraception and Breast Cancer Risk

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Lina S. Mørch, PhD, of the University of Copenhagen, and colleagues, a Danish study has shown that the risk of breast cancer is increased in hormonal contraception users vs nonusers, with the absolute increase in risk being small.  The study...

Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

In a report from the diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) registries of the International and European Societies for Pediatric Oncology, published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hoffman et al identified characteristics of long-term survivors among pediatric and young adult...

Outcomes for Cutaneous SCC of the Lip With Vermilion vs Cutaneous Location

In a study reported in JAMA Dermatology, Wang et al found that risk of nodal metastasis was higher for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip with vermilion vs cutaneous location. Disease-specific and overall survival were similar for the two locations. Study Details The retrospective ...

Sarcopenia, Adiposity, and Survival in Women With Nonmetastatic Breast Cancer

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Caan et al found that computed tomography (CT)-derived sarcopenia and adiposity were associated with overall survival in women with nonmetastatic breast cancer. Study Details The study involved data from 3,241 women from Kaiser Permanente of Northern...

Hormone Replacement Therapy and Breast Cancer Risk After Oophorectomy in BRCA1-Mutation Carriers

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Kotsopoulos et al found that use of hormone replacement therapy overall did not increase risk of breast cancer among BRCA1-mutation carriers after prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; however, use of estrogen-progesterone hormone replacement...

Clearance of Somatic Mutations at Remission and Outcomes in AML

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Morita et al found that clearance of somatic mutations at complete remission—particularly those in nonpreleukemic genes—was associated with improved outcomes in previously untreated patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML)....

hematologic malignancies
multiple myeloma

Role of Bone-Modifying Agents in Multiple Myeloma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Kenneth C. Anderson, MD, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and colleagues, ASCO has issued a clinical practice guideline update on the role of bone-modifying agents in multiple myeloma.1 The update was performed by an expert panel systematic...

Diagnosis-to-Treatment Interval and Outcome in Newly Diagnosed DLBCL

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Maurer et al found that a shorter interval between diagnosis and treatment was associated with adverse prognostic features and that a longer interval was associated with greater event-free survival in the first-line treatment of diffuse large ...

Characteristics of FDA-Designated Breakthrough and Nonbreakthrough Cancer Drugs

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hwang et al found little difference in the efficacy and safety of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-designated breakthrough vs nonbreakthrough cancer drugs and found that breakthrough drugs were not more likely to represent a novel...

Infection-Associated Late Mortality in Childhood Cancer Survivors Undergoing Splenectomy or Splenic Radiation

In a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Weil et al found that splenectomy and splenic radiation significantly increased the risk of infection-related late mortality among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Study Details The study...

Results From AREN0533: Treating Higher-Risk Favorable-Histology Wilms Tumor

In a report from the Children’s Oncology Group AREN0533 study published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, Dix et al found improved survival outcomes with a modified approach to treatment of favorable-histology Wilms tumor with lung metastases. Study Details The National Wilms Tumor Study...

Family History and Contralateral Breast Cancer Risk in Young Women

In an update from the WECARE (Women’s Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology) study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Reiner et al found that women with invasive breast cancer are at increased risk of contralateral breast cancer even in the absence of deleterious...

lymphoma

Axicabtagene Ciloleucel CAR T-Cell Therapy Active in Refractory Large B-Cell Lymphoma

As reported at the 2017 American Society of Hematology (ASH) Meeting & Exposition and in The New England Journal of Medicine by Sattva S. Neelapu, MD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and colleagues, a phase II trial has shown high activity of autologous anti-CD19 chimeric...

AACR 2018: KEYNOTE-189: Addition of Pembrolizumab to Chemotherapy in Metastatic NSCLC

As reported at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Meeting (Abstract CT075) in the The New England Journal of Medicine by Gandhi et al, the first interim analysis of the phase III KEYNOTE-189 trial has shown significant improvement in overall and progression-free survival with the...

Health-Related Quality-of-Life Analysis of Anti–PD-1 Therapy vs Chemotherapy in Advanced Urothelial Cancer

As reported by Vaughn et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, a health-related quality-of-life analysis from the phase III KEYNOTE-045 trial in previously treated advanced urothelial cancer showed that patients treated with the anti–programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapy...

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Liver Cancer Incidence in California

In a study among California residents reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Pham et al found that those designated as Asian/Pacific Islanders were at elevated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vs other racial/ethnic groups, with the highest risk observed among Southeast...

ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline: Optimizing Anticancer Therapy in Metastatic Noncastrate Prostate Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Michael J. Morris, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medicine, and colleagues, ASCO has released a clinical practice guideline on optimizing anticancer therapy in men with metastatic noncastrate prostate cancer. To...

mTOR Inhibitor Plus Endocrine Therapy in Postmenopausal Women With Advanced ER-Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

In the phase II BOLERO-4 trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Royce et al found that the combination of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (Afinitor) and endocrine therapy was active in first-line treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor...

gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer

Anti–PD-1 Immunotherapy in Previously Treated Gastric Cancer

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Fuchs et al, pembrolizumab (Keytruda) showed activity in patients with previously treated advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer in the phase II KEYNOTE-059 trial. Study Details In the study, 259 patients from sites in 16 countries who had disease...

First-Line Avelumab in Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma

In a preplanned interim analysis of a phase II trial (JAVELIN Merkel 200 part B) reported in JAMA Oncology, D’Angelo et al found that avelumab was active in the first-line treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Avelumab was approved in March 2017 for treatment of patients aged ≥ 12 ...

Effect of Integrated Assessment and Management Tool on Pain Management in Cancer Center Inpatients

In a UK-based study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Fallon et al found that adding a clinician-delivered bedside pain assessment and management tool (Edinburgh Pain Assessment and Management Tool [EPAT]) to usual care improved some pain outcomes in cancer center inpatients. Study...

Activity of Combined Immune Checkpoint and VEGF Inhibition as First-Line Therapy in Advanced Clear Cell RCC

In the dose-finding, dose-expansion phase Ib JAVELIN Renal 100 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Choueiri et al identified the maximum tolerated dose of the immune checkpoint inhibitor avelumab (Bavencio) in combination with the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor axitinib...

Treatment Trends for Lymph Node–Positive Penile Cancer

In a study of data from the National Cancer Database reported in JAMA Oncology, Joshi et al found that two-thirds of patients with node-positive nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the penis received lymph node dissection and approximately half received chemotherapy in recent years. ...

issues in oncology
legislation

Why Right-to-Try Laws Are Dangerous

Why wouldn’t you support a patient with a terminal illness the “right to try” any therapy that may save his or her life? The answer to this question—one engulfed in a political debate in Congress—seems simple. It is not. [Editor’s Note: [Editor’s Note: On May 30, 2018, the President signed into...

Dasatinib for Pediatric Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chronic Phase

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Gore et al, a phase II trial has shown high response rates with dasatinib treatment in pediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome–positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). Findings in the trial supported the...

Circulating Tumor DNA and Pseudoprogression in Metastatic Melanoma Treated with Anti–PD-1 Antibodies

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Lee et al found that measurement of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can help distinguish between pseudoprogression (radiologic progression prior to response) and true progression in patients with metastatic melanoma receiving anti­–programmed cell death ...

Novel PI3Kδ Inhibitor in Relapsed or Refractory Hematologic Malignancies

In a phase I trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Burris et al determined the phase II dose of the next-generation PI3Kδ inhibitor umbralisib and found evidence of the agent’s activity in relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies. Umbralisib exhibits improved PI3K isoform...

breast cancer
survivorship
symptom management

Internet-Delivered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Breast Cancer Survivors

In a Danish study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Zachariae et al found that an Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention improved insomnia among breast cancer survivors. Study Details In the study, 255 patients from a national sample of Danish breast...

legislation
health-care policy

Why Right-to-Try Laws Are Dangerous

Why wouldn’t you support a patient with a terminal illness the “right to try” any therapy that may save his or her life? The answer to this question—one engulfed in a political debate in Congress—seems simple. It is not. [Editor’s Note: On May 30, 2018, the President signed into law the Trickett...

issues in oncology
gastrointestinal cancer

Rehospitalization Patterns After Gastrointestinal Cancer Hospitalizations

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Manzano et al found that unplanned rehospitalization within 30 days after gastrointestinal (GI) cancer hospitalization was more likely after medical vs surgical index hospitalizations among older patients. Some risk factors for...

Larotrectinib in TRK Fusion–Positive Cancers in Adults and Children

In a study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Drilon et al found that the oral tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) inhibitor larotrectinib produced a high response rate and enduring responses in patients with TRK fusion–positive cancers. These fusions have been found to lead to...

EXPERT POINT OF VIEW: Matthew J. Ellis, MB, PhD

Matthew J. Ellis, MB, PhD, Director of the Lester and Sue Smith Breast Center at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, commented on the POETIC trial for The ASCO Post. “This is a wonderful study that validates a point that our research team has also made over the years—that Ki67 is much more...

Prexasertib in Pretreated BRCA Wild-Type High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

In a phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology by Lee et al, the investigational cell-cycle checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 inhibitor prexasertib produced responses in women with recurrent BRCA wild-type high-grade serous ovarian cancer. In the study, 28 women with measureable disease enrolled...

Nab-Paclitaxel vs Paclitaxel in Neoadjuvant Treatment of HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

In a European phase III trial (ETNA) reported in JAMA Oncology, Gianni et al found no significant difference in pathologic complete response rate with nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane) vs paclitaxel followed by an anthracycline regimen in neoadjuvant treatment for HER2-negative breast cancer. Study...

solid tumors

Individualized Adaptive Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Liver Tumors

In a single-center phase II study reported in JAMA Oncology, Feng and colleagues found that individualized adaptive stereotactic body radiotherapy achieved high rates of local tumor control with low complication rates in patients with liver tumors and preexisting liver dysfunction. Theodore S....

breast cancer
survivorship

Effects of Group Psychosocial Intervention on Body Image and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Survivors

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Esplen et al found that a group psychosocial intervention was effective in improving body image concerns and breast cancer–related quality of life among breast cancer survivors. Study Details In the study, 194 breast cancer survivors...

ASPIRE Trial: Final Overall Survival Results in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

The final overall survival results of the phase III ASPIRE trial indicate significant improvement with carfilzomib (Kyprolis), lenalidomide (Revlimid), and dexamethasone (KRd) vs lenalidomide plus dexamethasone (Rd) in patients who had received one to three prior lines of therapy for multiple...

Racial Differences in Breast Cancer 21-Gene Recurrence Scores

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Holowatyj et al found that among women with hormone receptor–positive, HER2-negative, node-negative invasive breast cancer, non-Hispanic black women had higher 21-gene recurrence scores  at diagnosis vs non-Hispanic white women....

Role of Bone-Modifying Agents in Multiple Myeloma: ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline Update

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Kenneth Anderson, MD, of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and colleagues, ASCO has issued a clinical practice guideline update on the role of bone-modifying agents in multiple myeloma. The update was informed by an expert panel systematic literature...

Risk Prediction Model for Acute Kidney Injury After First Course of Cisplatin

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Motwani et al have developed a predictive model for acute kidney injury following a first course of cisplatin that includes patient age, cisplatin dose, hypertension, and serum albumin level. Study Details The study involved data from 2,118...

Effect of TP53 Germline Variations on Outcomes in Pediatric B-Cell ALL

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Qian et al found that loss-of-function germline TP53 variants increase the risk of childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), as well as the risk of poorer response to therapy and second malignancies. Study Details In the study,...

solid tumors

Trastuzumab-dkst Approved as Biosimilar to Trastuzumab

In the Clinic provides overviews of novel oncology agents, addressing indications, mechanisms of action, administration recommendations, safety profiles, and other essential information needed for the appropriate clinical use of these drugs. On December 1, 2017, trastuzumab-dkst (Ogivri) was...

Celebrating the Life of Jimmie Holland, MD

The oncology community mourns the sudden passing of Jimmie C. Holland, MD, who died on December 24, 2017, at the age of 89. Dr. Holland’s achievements over her 40-year career are legend. They include the founding of the subspecialty of psycho-oncology, the establishment of a full-time Psychiatry...

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