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lung cancer

Patient-Reported Outcomes With Immunotherapy vs Chemotherapy in Advanced NSCLC

Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) treatment was associated with improved or maintained health-related quality of life vs platinum-based chemotherapy in the phase III KEYNOTE-024 trial in advanced programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)–positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These findings...

lung cancer

ASCO Endorses ASTRO Guideline on Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Early-Stage NSCLC

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncologyby Bryan J. Schneider, MD, of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and colleagues, ASCO has endorsed the recently released American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) evidence-based guideline on stereotactic body radiotherapy in early-stage...

lung cancer

Novel Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor for ALK- or ROS1-Rearranged NSCLC

A phase I trial has shown that the ALK and ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor lorlatinib is active in patients with advanced ALK- or ROS1-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including those with central nervous system (CNS) metastases and failure on at least two prior tyrosine kinase...

lung cancer

PanCan Risk Model for Lung Cancer Screening

Results of the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer (PanCan) study, reported in The Lancet Oncology by Tammemagi et al, indicate that the PanCan risk model is effective in identifying persons found to have early-stage lung cancer on low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening. Study Details ...

lung cancer

2-Year Survival Outcomes With Immunotherapy in Advanced NSCLC

Analysis of 2-year overall survival with nivolumab (Opdivo) vs docetaxel in the phase III CheckMate 017 and 057 trials showed a continued survival benefit with nivolumab in patients with previously treated advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The findings were reported by Horn et al...

lung cancer

Outcomes in Patients With Metastatic Lung Cancer Receiving PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors With Thoracic Radiotherapy

In a research letter to JAMA Oncology, Hwang et al detailed the outcomes of patients with metastatic lung cancer receiving an inhibitor of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) with or without thoracic radiotherapy at Massachusetts General Hospital. Study Details The...

lung cancer

Addition of EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor to Chemotherapy in Resistant Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

As reported by Mok et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, overall survival analysis of the phase III IMPRESS trial indicated a poorer outcome when adding gefitinib (Iressa) vs placebo to chemotherapy after disease progression on first-line gefitinib in epidermal growth factor receptor...

lung cancer

Immune-Related Adverse Events and Outcomes With Immunotherapy for NSCLC

In a Japanese analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Haratani et al found that development of immune-related adverse events was associated with improved survival among patients receiving nivolumab (Opdivo) for advanced or recurrent non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Study Details The study...

lung cancer

Comparison of First-Line Treatments for EGFR-Mutant NSCLC

The phase III ARCHER 1050 trial has shown superior progression-free survival with the second-generation irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor dacomitinib vs gefitinib (Iressa) in the first-line treatment of advanced EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung...

lung cancer

Consolidative Radiotherapy for Limited Metastatic NSCLC

In a single-institution phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Iyengar et al found that consolidative stereotactic ablative radiotherapy improved progression-free survival vs maintenance therapy alone in patients with limited metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Study Details...

lung cancer

Combination Therapy for Previously Untreated BRAF V600E–Mutant Metastatic NSCLC

In a phase II trial, the combination of dabrafenib (Tafinlar) plus trametinib (Mekinist) produced durable responses in a cohort of patients with previously untreated BRAF V600E–mutant metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The findings were reported in The Lancet Oncology by...

lung cancer

MicroRNA-Loaded Minicells in Recurrent Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

An Australian phase I first-in-human trial has shown early activity of microRNA-loaded minicells in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. These findings were reported in The Lancet Oncology by van Zandwijk et al. The minicells (TargomiRs) are loaded with miR-16–based mimic microRNA...

lung cancer

Addition of Motesanib to Paclitaxel/Carboplatin in East Asian Patients With Advanced NSCLC

The phase III MONET-A trial has shown that the addition of the multikinase/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor motesanib to paclitaxel and carboplatin did not significantly improve progression-free survival in East Asian patients with stage IV/recurrent nonsquamous non–small ...

lung cancer

Durvalumab Consolidation After Chemoradiotherapy in Stage III NSCLC

As reported by Antonia et al in The New England Journal of Medicine, an interim analysis of the phase III PACIFIC trial showed improved progression-free survival with the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor durvalumab (Imfinzi) vs placebo as consolidation in patients with unresectable...

lung cancer

Osimertinib in First-Line Treatment of EGFR Mutation–Positive Advanced NSCLC

Osimertinib (Tagrisso) has shown high activity in the phase I expansion component of the AURA trial in previously untreated patients with EGFR mutation–positive advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These findings were reported by Ramalingam et al in the Journal of Clinical...

lung cancer

Adding First-Line Ipilimumab to Paclitaxel/Carboplatin in Advanced Squamous NSCLC

In a phase III trial reported by Govindan et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the addition of first-line ipilimumab (Yervoy) to paclitaxel/carboplatin did not improve overall survival in patients with advanced squamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Study Details In the...

lung cancer
gastrointestinal cancer

Health-Related Quality of Life With Everolimus vs Placebo in Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumors

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Pavel et al, no significant difference in deterioration of health-related quality of life was observed with everolimus (Afinitor) vs placebo in the phase III RADIANT-4 trial, which included patients with advanced nonfunctional well-differentiated...

lung cancer

Association of Supplemental Vitamin B Use and Lung Cancer in VITAL Cohort

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Brasky et al found that the use of individual source supplemental vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer among men in the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort. Several B vitamins, including B6, B9 (folate),...

lung cancer

Fat Intake and Lung Cancer Risk

According to a study reported by Yang et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, high dietary intake of total fat and saturated fat was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, with the association with saturated fat being particularly evident among current smokers. Study Details The...

lung cancer

Tremelimumab in Previously Treated Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma

In the randomized phase IIB DETERMINE trial, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor tremelimumab did not improve overall survival vs placebo as second- or third-line treatment of relapsed malignant mesothelioma. These findings were reported in The Lancet Oncology...

lung cancer

Regionalization and Lung Cancer Operative Mortality in Ontario, Canada

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Bendzsak et al found that centralization of surgery services to high-volume hospitals in Ontario was not independently associated with improved operative mortality rates in lung cancer. In April 2007, a policy was implemented to regionalize...

lung cancer

First-Line Nivolumab vs Chemotherapy in Advanced NSCLC With PD-L1 Expression ≥ 5%

As reported by Carbone et al in The New England Journal of Medicine, the phase III CheckMate 026 trial has shown no progression-free survival benefit for first-line nivolumab (Opdivo) vs platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with recurrent or stage IV non–small cell lung cancer with...

lung cancer

Atezolizumab as First-Line or Subsequent Treatment in PD-L1–Selected Advanced NSCLC

In the phase II BIRCH trial, atezolizumab (Tecentriq) was found to produce higher response rates as first-line or subsequent therapy in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with higher levels of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. Study findings were...

lung cancer

Ceritinib vs Chemotherapy in Previously Treated ALK-Rearranged NSCLC

The phase III ASCEND-5 trial has shown a significant improvement in progression-free survival with ceritinib (Zykadia) vs chemotherapy in advanced ALK-rearranged non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with crizotinib (Xalkori) and chemotherapy. Trial results were reported in...

lung cancer

Sacituzumab Govitecan in Previously Treated Patients With Metastatic NSCLC

As reported by Heist et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the antibody-drug conjugate sacituzumab govitecan showed activity in patients with previously treated metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Sacituzumab targets Trop-2, present on many solid tumors; govitecan is the...

lung cancer

ALEX Trial: Alectinib vs Crizotinib in Untreated Advanced ALK-Positive NSCLC

As reported at the recent ASCO Annual Meeting and in The New England Journal of Medicine by Peters et al, the phase III ALEX trial has shown improvement in progression-free survival with alectinib (Alecensa) vs crizotinib (Xalkori) in the first-line treatment of advanced ALK-positive...

lung cancer

Effect of Previous Radiotherapy on Outcome With Pembrolizumab in NSCLC

In a single-site experience reported in The Lancet Oncology by Shaverdian et al, patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the phase I KEYNOTE-001 trial of pembrolizumab (Keytruda) were found to have better outcomes if they had received prior radiotherapy. Study Details...

lung cancer

Japanese Phase III Trial of Alectinib vs Crizotinib in ALK-Positive NSCLC

The Japanese phase III J-ALEX trial has shown improved progression-free survival with alectinib (Alecensa) vs crizotinib (Xalkori) in ALK inhibitor–naive patients with ALK-positive non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results were reported by Hida et al in The Lancet. Study Details In...

lung cancer

MEK Inhibitor Selumetinib and Docetaxel in KRAS-Mutant Advanced NSCLC

A phase III trial (SELECT-1) has shown no improvement in progression-free survival with the addition of the MEK inhibitor selumetinib to docetaxel in the second-line treatment of patients with KRAS-mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Trial results were reported by Jänne et al in...

lung cancer

Brigatinib in Advanced Crizotinib-Refractory ALK-Positive NSCLC

As reported by Kim et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the phase II ALTA trial showed that the next-generation oral ALK inhibitor brigatinib produced a high response rate, including intracranial responses, in patients with advanced crizotinib-refractory non–small cell lung cancer...

lung cancer

Prognostic and Predictive Effects of TP53 With KRAS or EGFR Mutation Status in NSCLC

In a pooled analysis of four trials of platinum adjuvant therapy vs observation in resected early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), Shepherd et al found no prognostic effect of KRAS or EGFR with TP53 comutation but a potential negative predictive effect for adjuvant therapy with TP53...

lung cancer

Genomic Intratumor Heterogeneity and Evolution of NSCLC Tumors

In a study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Jamal-Hanjani et al found that early stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors were characterized by widespread intratumor genomic heterogeneity and that increased subclonal copy-number alterations in this context were...

lung cancer

ASCO/CCO Clinical Practice Guideline Update: Adjuvant Therapy for Resected Non–Small Cell Lung Cancers

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Mark G. Kris, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and colleagues, ASCO and Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) have issued an update to the ASCO/CCO clinical practice guideline on adjuvant systemic therapy and adjuvant radiation therapy for stage...

lung cancer

Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation vs Observation in Extensive-Disease Small Cell Lung Cancer

A Japanese phase III trial has shown no survival benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation vs observation in patients with extensive-disease small cell lung cancer who had any response to platinum-based doublet chemotherapy and no brain metastases at baseline. These findings were reported in The...

lung cancer

Cardiac Events After Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer

An analysis of patients from 4 prospective radiotherapy trials for locally advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) conducted at 2 centers in Michigan showed that grade ≥ 3 cardiac events occurred in more than 10% of patients. The study was reported by Dess et al in the Journal of...

lung cancer

Assessment of Immunohistochemistry Assays for PD-L1 Expression in NSCLC

In a study of four immunohistochemistry programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression assays registered with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), scoring was highly concordant for expression in tumor cells but poorly concordant for scoring in immune cells in non–small cell lung...

lung cancer

3-Year Follow-up of Japanese Trial of Alectinib in ALK-Positive NSCLC

Promising 3-year outcomes were found in patients from a Japanese phase I/II study of alectinib (Alecensa) in previously treated patients with ALK-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The findings were reported by Tamura et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Study Details In the ...

lung cancer

Multikinase Inhibitor Treatment Responses in Patients With RET-Rearranged NSCLC

In a report from the Global, Multicenter RET Registry in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Gautschi et al documented response rates with multikinase RET inhibitors in patients with RET-rearranged non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Study Details The study involved registry data (through...

lung cancer

UK Trial Shows No Survival Benefit in Adding Pravastatin to Standard Chemotherapy in Small Cell Lung Cancer

In the UK phase III LUNGSTAR study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Seckl et al found that adding pravastatin to first-line standard chemotherapy did not improve overall survival in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Numerous large prospective cohort and registry studies...

lung cancer

Osimertinib in EGFR Inhibitor–Pretreated T790M-Positive Advanced NSCLC

In the phase II extension component of the phase I/II AURA trial, reported by Yang et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, osimertinib (Tagrisso) was found to be highly active in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor–pretreated T790M-positive advanced...

lung cancer

Never Smokers Account for Increased Proportion of Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Cases

In a retrospective study in three U.S. institutions reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Pelosof et al found that never smokers accounted for an increasing proportion of cases of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during the period from 1990 to 2013. The study used data...

lung cancer

Gefitinib or Erlotinib vs Chemotherapy in EGFR-Mutant Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

In an individual patient data meta-analysis reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Lee et al found no difference in overall survival for first-line treatment with the first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) or...

lung cancer

Italian Trial Adds Bevacizumab to Cisplatin/Etoposide in Extensive-Disease Small Cell Lung Cancer

In an Italian phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Tiseo et al found that adding first-line bevacizumab (Avastin) to cisplatin/etoposide did not prolong overall survival in patients with extensive-disease small cell lung cancer. Study Details In the open-label trial, 204...

lung cancer

Increased Risk of Cardiac Events With High Heart Dose in High-Dose Thoracic Radiotherapy

In a single-center pooled analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Wang et al found that a higher dose of radiation to the heart was associated with an increased risk of cardiac events in patients receiving high-dose radiation therapy for stage III non–small cell lung cancer...

colorectal cancer
lung cancer

Potential Suboptimal Use of Guideline-Endorsed Genomic Testing in Non–Small Cell Lung and Colorectal Cancers

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Gray et al found that many medical oncologists did not use genomic testing endorsed by guidelines in place in 2012 and 2013 in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colorectal cancer. The study involved a survey of U.S....

lung cancer

Phase III Trial Finds First-Line Ceritinib Improves PFS vs Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in ALK-Rearranged NSCLC

In a phase III trial (ASCEND-4) reported in The Lancet, Soria et al found that ceritinib (Zykadia) improved progression-free survival vs platinum-based chemotherapy in first-line treatment of advanced ALK-rearranged non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Ceritinib is a next-generation selective...

lung cancer

Is Adding Onartuzumab to Erlotinib of Benefit in Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer?

In a phase III METLung trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Spigel et al found that adding the MET inhibitor onartuzumab to erlotinib (Tarceva) was of no benefit in patients with MET-positive advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had progressed after platinum-based...

lung cancer

Atezolizumab Improves Survival vs Docetaxel in Previously Treated Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

In the phase III OAK trial reported in The Lancet by Rittmeyer et al, treatment with the anti–programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody atezolizumab (Tecentriq) improved overall survival vs docetaxel in previously treated non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results of the trial...

lung cancer

First-in-Class Rovalpituzumab Tesirine Active in Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer

In a phase I study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Rudin et al found that rovalpituzumab tesirine, a first-in-class antibody-drug conjugate directed against delta-like protein 3 (DLL3), produced responses in patients with recurrent small cell lung cancer (SCLC). DLL3 is a target identified in...

lung cancer

Promising Activity Seen With First-Line Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Hellman et al, the combination of nivolumab (Opdivo) and ipilimumab (Yervoy) showed promising activity as first-line treatment in patients in the non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cohort of the phase I CheckMate 012 study. Study Details In the...

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