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head and neck cancer

Incidence of HPV-Associated Head and Neck Cancers in the United States

In a study by Mahal et al published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, researchers conducted a population-based assessment of the incidence and demographic burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in the United States. The researchers...

issues in oncology

Racial Reporting and Representation in Oncology Trials

New research published by Loree et al in JAMA Oncology found that race and race subgroup analysis reporting does not occur frequently and that black and Hispanic populations are underrepresented in oncology trials that have led to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals. The study raises...

breast cancer

Total Cumulative Chemotherapy Dose and Survival in Breast Cancer

Physicians should attempt to maintain full doses of chemotherapy, especially early in the course of treatment, for patients with intermediate- or high-risk breast cancer, according to research published by Veitch et al in JNCCN—Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. The...

pancreatic cancer

Adavosertib Plus Gemcitabine and Radiotherapy in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

In a phase I dose-escalation trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Cuneo et al established the phase II dose of the Wee1 kinase inhibitor adavosertib in combination with gemcitabine and radiotherapy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Wee1 inhibition impedes DNA damage response and ...

skin cancer
symptom management

Risk of Cardiovascular Adverse Events in Patients With Melanoma Treated With Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition vs BRAF Inhibition Alone

In a meta-analysis reported in JAMA Network Open, Mincu et al found that the risk of some types of cardiovascular adverse events was higher with combined BRAF and MEK inhibitor treatment vs BRAF inhibitor monotherapy in patients with melanoma. The meta-analysis included 2,317 patients in five...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Nivolumab/Brentuximab Vedotin in Relapsed or Refractory Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Zinzani et al, findings in a phase II expansion cohort of the CheckMate 436 study indicated high levels of activity with the combination of nivolumab and brentuximab vedotin in relapsed or refractory primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. As...

issues in oncology

Obesity-Associated Cancers and Age Demographics

A study published by Koroukian et al in JAMA Network Open found that from 2000 to 2016, incident obesity-associated cancers were increasingly found in younger age groups. The authors suggest that interventions are needed to reduce obesity and to implement individualized screening programs. The...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

T-Cell Receptor Gene Therapy in HPV-Associated Epithelial Cancers

In a first-in-human phase I/II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Doran et al found that autologous genetically engineered T cells expressing a T-cell receptor directed against the human papillomavirus (HPV)16 E6 oncoprotein were capable of inducing tumor regression in metastatic,...

breast cancer

Neoadjuvant Letrozole Plus Taselisib or Placebo in Postmenopausal Women With ER-Positive, HER2-Negative Early Breast Cancer

In the phase II LORELEI trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Saura et al found that the addition of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor taselisib to neoadjuvant letrozole improved objective response rates but not pathologic complete response rates in women with estrogen receptor...

issues in oncology

Relationship Between Sleep Apnea and Cancer Risk in Women

Women with severe sleep apnea appear to also have an elevated risk of developing cancer, according to findings from a study by Pataka et al in the European Respiratory Journal. No causal relationship was demonstrated, but a link between nocturnal hypoxia in women and higher cancer risk was...

NCORP Expands to More Sites

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has awarded 53 grants to researchers in the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) to conduct multisite cancer clinical trials and cancer care delivery studies in their communities. In addition to seven research hubs, these NCI grants went to 32...

prostate cancer

Mortality Risk for Patients With Preexisting Cardiovascular Conditions Treated With Abiraterone Acetate or Enzalutamide

A new population-based study showed that novel oral androgen signaling–inhibitor therapies may be associated with an increased risk of death in patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions. The research was published by Lu-Yao et al in European Urology. “Data from published ...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Pooled Analysis of 4-Year Survival With Nivolumab Therapy in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced NSCLC

In an analysis reported in The Lancet Oncology, Antonia et al identified long-term survival rates with nivolumab therapy in patients with previously treated advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The pooled analysis included data from the CheckMate 017, 057, 063, and 003 trials, each...

pancreatic cancer

Surgical Resection Among Patients Receiving Primary Chemotherapy for Borderline Resectable and Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

In an Italian prospective cohort study reported in JAMA Surgery, Maggino et al found that among patients receiving primary chemotherapy for newly diagnosed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, conversion to surgical resection was achieved in 24% of those with borderline resectable disease and 9% of...

colorectal cancer

Does Exercise Improve Outcomes in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer?

Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who engaged in moderate exercise while undergoing chemotherapy tended to have delayed progression of their disease and fewer severe side effects from treatment, according to the results of a new study published by Guercio et al in the Journal of Clinical...

FDA OCE and Syapse Announce Research Collaboration Focused on Regulatory Use of Real-World Evidence

Syapse and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Oncology Center of Excellence (OCE) have signed a multiyear research collaboration agreement focused on the use of real-world evidence to support regulatory decision-making. Syapse and the OCE will work with stakeholders across the FDA to...

leukemia
prostate cancer
gastrointestinal cancer

FDA Pipeline: Designation in CLL, New Drug Application in GIST, New Prostate Ablation System Receives 510(k) Clearance

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to acalabrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), accepted a new drug application for avapritinib in some types of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), and granted 501(k) clearance to market the...

hematologic malignancies

FDA Approves Fedratinib for Myelofibrosis

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved fedratinib (Inrebic) for adults with intermediate-2 or high-risk primary or secondary (postpolycythemia vera or postessential thrombocythemia) myelofibrosis. “Prior to today, there was one FDA-approved drug to treat patients with...

solid tumors

Relapse of Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors During Active Surveillance

In a single-institution study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hamilton et al found that relapses of clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) during postorchiectomy active surveillance most frequently occurred in the retroperitoneum and were cured by single-modality...

breast cancer

Circulating Tumor DNA and Relapse in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Garcia-Murillas et al found that detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) during follow-up after initial treatment for early breast cancer was associated with a high risk of relapse. Detection at diagnosis was also associated with poorer relapse-free...

issues in oncology

Single-Institution Study of Next-Generation Sequencing Outcomes in Patients With Cancer

In a single-institution retrospective study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Davis and colleagues found that next-generation sequencing (NGS) tests resulted in changes in management in a small proportion of patients with cancer. Study Details The study involved retrospective review...

breast cancer
colorectal cancer
head and neck cancer
lung cancer

FDA Approves Entrectinib for NTRK-Fusion Cancers, ROS1-Positive NSCLC

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to entrectinib (Rozlytrek) for adult and adolescent patients whose cancers have an NTRK (neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase) genetic fusion and for whom there are no effective treatments. Entrectinib was also...

hepatobiliary cancer

CD8-Positive, Ki67-Positive T Cells Producing Interferon Gamma as a Biomarker of Response to Sorafenib Therapy in Patients With Advanced HCC

Immunology researchers have uncovered a biomarker that may help explain why some patients respond better than others to sorafenib, a common chemotherapy used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Their analysis of immune responses among patients receiving sorafenib, published by...

breast cancer
survivorship

Adiposity Distribution and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease Among Breast Cancer Survivors

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Cespedes Feliciano et al found that increased visceral and intramuscular adiposity were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease among breast cancer survivors, independent of baseline risk factors and cancer treatment. Study...

lung cancer

Olaparib/Temozolomide Shows Activity in Patients With Relapsed Small Cell Lung Cancer

Small cell lung cancer accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers and has high metastatic potential and poor clinical outcomes. While untreated small cell lung cancers are usually highly sensitive to cytotoxic chemotherapy—with response rates of between 50% and 70%—patients...

prostate cancer

FDA Review Finds No Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer With Parkinson's Disease Treatments Containing Entacapone

A U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review of additional data found no increased risk of prostate cancer with the use of entacapone to treat Parkinson’s disease. The FDA conducted this review after an earlier trial—the Stalevo Reduction in Dyskinesia Evaluation–Parkinson's...

issues in oncology

Age Disparities Among Patients in Cancer Clinical Trials and Patients With Cancer in the General Population

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Ludmir et al found that the median age of patients with common cancers enrolled in clinical trials was substantially lower than the median age of patients with the same cancers in the general population. Age disparity was greater in industry-funded trials....

prostate cancer

Are MRI-Assisted Biopsies More Effective Than Standard Ultrasound-Guided Biopsies Alone in the Detection of Prostate Cancer?

Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to target biopsies is more effective at detecting prostate cancers that are likely to need treatment than standard ultrasound-guided biopsies alone, according to research published by Elwenspoek et al in JAMA Network Open. Prostate biopsies can cause side...

pancreatic cancer

Germline RABL3 Mutation May Increase Risk of Pancreatic Cancer Development

Scientists who studied a highly cancer-prone single family have identified a rare, inherited gene mutation that may raise the lifetime risk of pancreatic and other cancers. Their findings were published by Nissim et al in Nature Genetics. The discovery of the previously unknown mutation could lead ...

immunotherapy

Immune-Related Adverse Events Requiring Hospitalization in Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

In a single-center analysis reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Balaji et al found that immune-related adverse events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment often require hospitalization and multidisciplinary management. The study involved data from patients who had...

issues in oncology

Outcomes Among Older HIV-Positive Patients With Cancer in the United States

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Coghill et al found that outcomes are often worse among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients aged 65 years or older with cancer vs HIV-negative patients with cancer, after adjustment for the first courses of treatment. In the study,...

lung cancer

Addition of Cediranib to Cisplatin/Pemetrexed in Chemotherapy-Naive Unresectable Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

In the phase II SWOG S0905 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Tsao et al found that the addition of the epidermal growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor cediranib to cisplatin/pemetrexed was associated with limited benefit and greater toxicity...

hepatobiliary cancer

Outcomes in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease–Associated HCC

A recent study has found that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease–associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with greater surgical morbidity and postresection liver failure, but long-term survival was better than in non–nonalcoholic fatty liver disease etiologies. These...

issues in oncology
survivorship

Access to Care and Quality of Life Among Sexual Minority Cancer Survivors

In a study published by Boehmer et al in Cancer, researchers found access to care among sexual minority cancer survivors was lacking. Moreover, sexual minority women with poor access to care, in particular, had a worse quality of life. Methods Researchers performed a secondary analysis of 4...

solid tumors

Pazopanib or Methotrexate/Vinblastine in Progressive Desmoid Tumors

In the French Sarcoma Group noncomparative phase II DESMOPAZ trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Toulmonde et al found that the oral vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor pazopanib was active in adult patients with progressive desmoid tumors. As noted by the investigators, ...

cns cancers

Response- and Biology-Based Therapy for Pediatric Intermediate-Risk Neuroblastoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Twist et al, use of reduced therapy for subsets of pediatric patients with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma in the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) study ANBL0531 did not affect the excellent overall survival rates observed in prior COG studies ...

pancreatic cancer

USPSTF Recommendation on Screening for Pancreatic Cancer in Asymptomatic Adults

As reported in JAMA, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), in a reaffirmation of its 2004 recommendation, has recommended against screening for pancreatic cancer in asymptomatic adults (a grade D recommendation). In developing the current recommendation, the USPSTF reviewed...

breast cancer

Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis for Detection of Residual Disease in Breast Cancer

Researchers have developed a new method for tracking residual disease in patients with breast cancer that could one day help doctors better tailor treatments and prevent unnecessary surgeries for some people with the disease. Findings were published by McDonald et al in Science Translational...

hematologic malignancies

First-Degree Familial Risk in Blood Cancer Development

New data suggest that people who have a parent, sibling, or child with blood cancer have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with a hematologic malignancy themselves. A study by Sud et al published in Blood offers the first...

skin cancer

Can Genetic Counseling and Test Reporting in Patients Susceptible to Melanoma Development Change Behavior?

A new study published by Stump et al in Genetics in Medicine investigated whether genetic testing would motivate people at risk of developing melanoma to alter their behavior in order to reduce their risk. “We are trying to understand whether a genetic test result adds value over and above...

prostate cancer

Comparison of Scans for Detection of Early Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer After Prostatectomy

In a single-center study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Calais et al found that the use of gallium Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen-11 positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PSMA PET/CT) resulted in higher detection rates of early biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after ...

issues in oncology

Cancer in Adults Aged 85 and Older: Rates, Screening, and Survival

A new report published by DeSantis et al in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians examined cancer statistics in adults 85 and older and found incidence and mortality trends are generally similar to those in people aged 65 to 84 years, but disease screening rates are unexpectedly high and survival is...

hepatobiliary cancer

Aspirin Use May Improve Liver Function After Embolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

According to research published by Boas et al in the American Journal of Roentgenology, aspirin therapy is associated with improved liver function test results and survival after transarterial embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma. Findings In a retrospective review of 304 patients, among the ...

issues in oncology

Patient vs Provider Views on Goals and Adverse Effects of Cancer Therapy

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Duckworth et al found that many patients with cancer had more optimistic treatment goals vs their physicians and that patients who did not understand adverse effects associated with treatment had higher distress scores. As stated by the...

bladder cancer

Enfortumab Vedotin in Platinum- and Anti–PD-1/L1–Pretreated Urothelial Carcinoma

In the phase II EV-201 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Rosenberg et al found the antibody-drug conjugate enfortumab vedotin showed high activity in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma who had previously received platinum-based therapy and anti–programmed cell...

health-care policy
immunotherapy

CMS Finalizes Decision to Cover CAR T-Cell Therapy for Medicare Beneficiaries

On August 7, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) finalized the decision to cover U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy among recipients of Medicare benefits. FDA-approved CAR T-cell therapies are approved to...

prostate cancer
issues in oncology

Androgen-Deprivation Therapy May Increase Risk for QT Prolongation and Torsades de Pointes

In a study published by Salem et al in Circulation, researchers examined how several testosterone-blocking drugs commonly used in the treatment of prostate cancer affect the heart's QT interval. The longer a QT interval—typically measured by an electrocardiogram—the more at risk a ...

skin cancer

Is Vitamin A Intake Linked to Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk?

People whose diets included high levels of vitamin A had a 17% reduction in risk for developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, as compared to those who ate modest amounts of foods and supplements rich in vitamin A. These findings were published by Kim et al in JAMA Dermatology. Vitamin A is...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Comparison of Biomarker Assay Types in Predicting Response to Anti–PD-1/PD-L1 Treatment

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Lu et al found that multiplex immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence (mIHC/IF) assays appeared to have greater accuracy vs other types of assays in predicting response to anti–programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Maintenance Bevacizumab, Pemetrexed, or Both in Advanced Nonsquamous NSCLC

In the phase III ECOG-ACRIN 5508 trial, reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Ramalingam et al, maintenance pemetrexed or bevacizumab was associated with no significant improvement in overall survival vs the bevacizumab control group alone, and was associated with greater toxicity in...

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