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Hepatobiliary Cancer
Immunotherapy

ESMO Asia 2019: Combination of Atezolizumab and Bevacizumab for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Combination therapy with the programmed cell death ligand 1 inhibitor atezolizumab and the VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab significantly improved overall and progression-free survival in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to sorafenib, according to findings from the phase ...

Breast Cancer

ESMO Asia 2019: Trastuzumab Biosimilar HLX02 Shows Activity in HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer

The trastuzumab biosimilar HLX02—manufactured in China—achieved a similar overall response rate to reference trastuzumab in women with HER2-positive recurrent or previously untreated metastatic breast cancer, according to a large, randomized phase III study reported by Xu et al at the European...

FDA Approves Voxelotor for Sickle Cell Disease

On November 25, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to voxelotor (Oxbryta) for adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older with sickle cell disease.

“[Voxelotor] is an inhibitor of deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin polymerization, which is the central...

Gynecologic Cancers
Global Cancer Care

Thermal Ablation vs Cryotherapy or Loop Excision in Zambian Women Positive for Cervical Precancer

In the pilot phase of an ongoing randomized trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Pinder et al found that thermal ablation and cryotherapy produced similar treatment success rates in Zambian women positive for cervical precancer on visual inspection with acetic acid.

The investigators noted that...

Prostate Cancer

Activity of Anti-STEAP1 Antibody-Drug Conjugate in Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

In a phase I trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Danila et al found that the antibody-drug conjugate DSTP3086S, which targets the six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 1 (STEAP1), had acceptable safety and evidence of activity in patients with metastatic...

Immunotherapy

Characteristics of Metastatic Lesion Responses to PD-1 Inhibition

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Osorio et al found that responses to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor therapy tended to be consistent across metastases and occur simultaneously in metastatic lesions of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and mismatch...

Solid Tumors

Machine Learning Algorithm for Genome-Derived Prediction of Tumor Type

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Penson et al developed a machine learning algorithmic classifier that may be successful in identifying tumor type and origin based on DNA-sequence data obtained at point of care.

The study used machine learning to construct and train an algorithmic classifier...

Issues in Oncology

Mental Health Outcomes in Mothers and Siblings of Children With Cancer

In a Canadian study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, van Warmerdam et al found that mothers and siblings of children with cancer were significantly more likely to have mental health–related outpatient health-care contacts than their general population counterparts.

The study involved...

Skin Cancer

MicroRNA Panel Could Aid in the Detection of Uveal Melanoma

A blood test could soon become a monitoring tool for the early detection of uveal melanoma. Stark et al discovered markers in the blood that can differentiate between a benign mole and a melanoma, while also determining whether the cancer has metastasized, according to findings they published in...

Lung Cancer

2019 State of Lung Cancer Report Released

More Americans than ever are surviving lung cancer. While the disease remains the leading cause of cancer deaths among both women and men, over the past decade, the survival rate has increased. A new report from the American Lung Association—the 2019 State of Lung Cancer—examines this promising...

Leukemia
Lymphoma

FDA Approves Acalabrutinib for CLL/SLL as Part of Project Orbis

On November 21, as part of Project Orbis—a collaboration with the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) and Health Canada—the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted supplemental approval to acalabrutinib (Calquence) for the treatment of adults with chronic lymphocytic leukemia...

Head and Neck Cancer
Immunotherapy

Pembrolizumab With or Without Chemotherapy vs Cetuximab Plus Chemotherapy in Recurrent or Metastatic HNSCC

As reported in The Lancet by Barbara Burtness, MD, and colleagues, the phase III KEYNOTE-048 trial has shown improved overall survival with first-line pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy vs cetuximab plus chemotherapy among patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and...

Skin Cancer

Long-Term Analysis of Vemurafenib/Cobimetinib in Patients With BRAF-Mutated Melanoma

A phase Ib study evaluating the safety and long-term benefit of combination treatment with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib plus the MEK1 inhibitor cobimetinib in patients with advanced BRAF V600E–mutated melanoma has found that nearly 40% of the patients experienced extended survival of 4 to 5 years ...

Issues in Oncology
Pain Management

Opioid Prescriptions in Patients With Cancer in Southwest Virginia

In a study in residents of rural southwest Virginia reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Virginia T. LeBaron, PhD, and colleagues found that most patients with cancer never received a prescription opioid medication, that few patients were admitted to hospital for opioid use disorders, and...

Kidney Cancer
Immunotherapy

Atezolizumab/Bevacizumab in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma With Variant Histology or Sarcomatoid Features

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Toni K. Choueiri, MD, and colleagues found that the combination of atezolizumab and bevacizumab was active in metastatic renal cell carcinoma with variant histology and clear cell renal cell carcinoma with ≥ 20% sarcomatoid...

Issues in Oncology
Pain Management

Prescribed Opioid Use and Infection Risk in Patients With Cancer and Treatment-Associated Neutropenia

In a German study reported in a research letter in JAMA Internal Medicine, Jakob et al found that prescribed opioid use did not appear to increase risk of infection in hospitalized patients with cancer who developed treatment-associated neutropenia. According to the investigators, recent data have...

Leukemia

Late Bone Marrow Relapse Risk Stratification in Pediatric Patients With B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

In an analysis of the German ALL-REZ BFM 2002 trial, reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Eckert et al found that postinduction minimal residual disease (MRD)-based treatment stratification resulted in “excellent survival” in pediatric patients with late relapse of B-cell precursor acute...

Issues in Oncology

Does Testosterone Replacement Therapy Benefit Young Male Cancer Survivors?

Young male cancer survivors may significantly benefit from testosterone replacement therapy—especially after testicular cancer. Research published by Walsh et al in PLOS Medicine looked at one of the most common late-onset side effects experienced by young male survivors—reduced levels of the male...

Lung Cancer

Gefitinib Alone vs Gefitinib Plus Chemotherapy in EGFR-Mutated Metastatic NSCLC

In the Japanese phase III NEJ009 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hosomi et al found that the addition of first-line gefitinib to carboplatin/pemetrexed improved progression-free survival vs gefitinib alone in patients with EGFR-mutated metastatic non–small cell lung cancer...

Solid Tumors
Immunotherapy

Pembrolizumab in Noncolorectal MSI-H/dMMR Solid Tumors

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Marabelle et al, the phase II KEYNOTE-158 trial has shown robust activity of pembrolizumab in patients with noncolorectal microsatellite instability­–high (MSI-H)/mismatch repair–deficient (dMMR) solid tumors.

Findings in the study supported the...

Hematologic Malignancies

Outcomes With Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation Plus Cyclophosphamide in Adults With Hematologic Cancers

In a meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Gagelmann et al found that overall survival with haploidentical stem cell transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide was poorer vs matched related donor transplantation and similar vs matched unrelated donor transplantation in adult...

Issues in Oncology

Disparities in Culturally Competent Cancer Care

Many nonwhite minority cancer survivors place importance on seeing doctors who share or understand their culture, but are less likely than non-Hispanic whites to be able to see such physicians, according to a new study. The study, which is one of the first nationally-representative studies to...

Skin Cancer

Role of Voriconazole in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Development

For the last decade, medical experts have known that voriconazole—an antifungal medication used to prevent infections in patients with compromised immune systems—is linked to the development of particularly aggressive squamous cell carcinoma in skin exposed to ultraviolet (UV) rays. However, the...

Lymphoma
Immunotherapy

Polatuzumab Vedotin Plus Bendamustine/Rituximab for Transplantation-Ineligible Relapsed or Refractory DLBCL

In a phase Ib/II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Laurie H. Sehn, MD, MPH, and colleagues found that the addition of polatuzumab vedotin to bendamustine/rituximab improved response rate and progression-free and overall survival among transplantation-ineligible patients with...

Colorectal Cancer

Targeted Triplet Therapy Improved Overall Survival in BRAF-Mutated Colorectal Cancer

For patients with metastatic colorectal cancer harboring BRAF V600E mutations, three drugs seem to be better than two, the most recent analysis of the phase III BEACON CRC study has shown.1 The results, presented at the 2019 European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress, were concurrently...

Expert Point of View: Alfredo Falcone, MD

The invited discussant of BEACON CRC, Alfredo Falcone, MD, of the Department of Oncology and Translational Medicine at the University of Pisa, Italy, commented: “The ‘story’ of BEACON represents a good example of the European Society for Medical Oncology Congress theme: Translating Science Into...

Gastrointestinal Cancer

Maximizing Benefit in the Treatment of Immune-Mediated Colitis

Immune-related colitis is the second most common toxicity associated with checkpoint inhibitors, affecting up to 40% of patients. The ASCO Post interviewed Yinghong Wang, MD, PhD, Director of Medication-Induced Colitis and Enteritis, Director of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation, and Associate...

Geriatric Oncology

Improving Communication With Older Patients Using Geriatric Assessment During Oncology Visits

In the COACH study, reported in JAMA Oncology, Supriya G. Mohile, MD, MS, and colleagues found that including geriatric assessment in oncology visits for older adults with advanced cancer improved patient and caregiver satisfaction with communication regarding aging-related concerns.

Study Details

...

Gynecologic Cancers
Immunotherapy

Nivolumab Plus Bevacizumab in Relapsed Ovarian Cancer

In a phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Liu et al found evidence of the activity of combined nivolumab and bevacizumab in relapsed ovarian cancer, with activity appearing to be greater in platinum-sensitive disease.

Study Details

In the trial, 38 women with relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer ...

Solid Tumors

Long-Term Effects of Denosumab in Patients With Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

As reported by Chawla et al in The Lancet Oncology, long-term data from the final analysis of an international phase II study suggest that a favorable risk-benefit ratio is maintained over time with denosumab treatment of patients with giant cell tumor of bone. Benefit of denosumab was indicated in ...

Issues in Oncology

Presenting Symptoms and Cancer Stage at Diagnosis

In a population-based study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Koo et al found that presenting symptoms of cancer were mostly associated with stage earlier than stage IV, suggesting a benefit of symptom awareness campaigns based on common symptoms.

As stated by the investigators, “Early diagnosis...

Multiple Myeloma

Lenalidomide vs Observation in Asymptomatic Smoldering Multiple Myeloma

In a phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sagar Lonial, MD, and colleagues found that lenalidomide significantly improved progression-free survival vs observation in patients with intermediate- or high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma. As noted by the investigators,...

Hepatobiliary Cancer

Hepatic Arterial Infusion of Floxuridine Plus Systemic Gemcitabine/Oxaliplatin for Unresectable Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

In a single-center phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Andrea Cercek, MD, and colleagues found that hepatic arterial infusion of floxuridine in combination with systemic gemcitabine/oxaliplatin produced high response and disease control rates and was associated with promising overall survival ...

Issues in Oncology
Survivorship

Exercise Intolerance in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Ness et al found a high rate of exercise intolerance among adult survivors of childhood cancer, irrespective of exposure to cardiotoxic treatment. Exercise intolerance was associated with poorer overall survival.

The study involved 1,041...

Hepatobiliary Cancer

Oral Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy May Improve Survival in Patients With Hepatitis C Virus–Related HCC

Data from a new study presented by Dang et al at The Liver Meeting (Abstract 40) found that patients with hepatitis C virus–related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who achieved sustained virologic response (denoting an undetectable level of the virus) with any oral direct-acting antiviral therapy...

Lung Cancer
Issues in Oncology

Rates of Non–Guideline-Concordant Lung Cancer Treatment in the United States

Only about 6 in 10 patients with lung cancer in the United States receive the minimal lung cancer treatments recommended by National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN) Guidelines, according to new research published by Blom et al in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

Erik F. Blom, MD,...

Breast Cancer

Prognostic Biomarkers in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treated With Adjuvant Doxorubicin/Cyclophosphamide

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Priyanka Sharma, MD, and colleagues, biomarker analysis among women with triple-negative breast cancer treated with adjuvant doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide in the SWOG 9313c trial has confirmed a 44-gene DNA damage immune response signature and...

Colorectal Cancer

2019 NCRI: Use of Mendelian Randomization to Determine Role of Human Gut Microbiome in Colorectal Cancer Development

A study using a technique called Mendelian randomization to investigate the causal role played by bacteria in the development of colorectal cancer was presented at the 2019 National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Cancer Conference.

First study author Kaitlin Wade, PhD, of the University of...

Lymphoma
Immunotherapy

Bendamustine/Rituximab Followed by Yttrium Y-90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan in Previously Untreated Follicular Lymphoma

In the phase II Fol-BRITe study reported in Clinical Cancer Research, Lansigan et al found that a short course of bendamustine/rituximab followed by consolidation with yttrium Y-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (Y-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan) was associated with a high response rate and a high rate of...

Survivorship

Risk of Subsequent Malignant Neoplasms in Childhood Cancer Survivors After Treatment With Chemotherapy Alone

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Turcotte et al, analysis of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Cohort showed that childhood cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy alone—particularly higher cumulative doses of platinum and alkylating agents—are at an increased risk of...

Head and Neck Cancer
Skin Cancer

Head and Neck Melanoma in Adolescents and Young Adults: 1995 to 2014

Head and neck melanoma appears to be on the rise in young people in the United States and Canada, according to a study by Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters, BDS, PhD, MPH, CHES, of the Saint Louis University (SLU) School of Medicine, and colleagues. Because the prognosis of head and neck melanoma is...

Colorectal Cancer
Geriatric Oncology

Short-Term Survival in Patients Aged 85 Years and Older After Colorectal Cancer Surgery

Results from a preliminary research study showed the majority of patients aged 85 years and older were still alive in the short-term after undergoing segmental colectomy for stage II and III colon cancer. Kaur et al presented these findings at the American College of Surgeons Clinical Congress...

Issues in Oncology
Hepatobiliary Cancer

Financial Burdens of Patients With Cirrhosis and Impact on Screening for HCC

Data from a new study presented by Singal et al at The Liver Meeting found that patients with cirrhosis in the United States have substantial financial burden and this is associated with underuse of surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (Abstract 201). Improved intervention strategies are ...

Lung Cancer

Dietary Fiber, Yogurt Consumption, and Lung Cancer Risk

In a pooled analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Yang et al found that higher fiber and higher yogurt consumption were associated with significantly reduced risk of lung cancer.

Study Details

The analysis included 627,988 men (mean age = 57.9 years) and 817, 862 women (mean age = 54.8 years) from...

Hepatobiliary Cancer

2019 NCRI: Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence and Mortality Rates in England Have Tripled Over the Past 20 Years

From 1997 to 2016, incidence and deaths from hepatocellular carcinoma have tripled in England, according to research presented by Burton et al at the 2019 National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Cancer Conference.

Anya Burton, PhD, a cancer epidemiologist at Public Health England, said in a press ...

Gynecologic Cancers

2019 NCRI: CA125 Testing May Help General Practitioners to Detect Ovarian Cancer

Testing for levels of the serum biomarker cancer antigen 125 (CA125) in the blood may be a useful tool for the detection of ovarian cancer, and could help detect other types of cancer among patients in primary care, according to research presented by Funston et al at the 2019 National Cancer...

Prostate Cancer

2019 NCRI: Higher IGF-1 and Free Testosterone Levels May be Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer

Men with higher levels of free (biologically active) testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in their blood are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, according to research presented by Travis et al at the 2019 National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Cancer Conference....

Solid Tumors
Immunotherapy

High-Dose Bevacizumab for Patients With Neurofibromatosis Type 2 and Progressive Vestibular Schwannomas

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Plotkin et al found that high-dose bevacizumab induction therapy did not appear to produce better outcomes compared with lower-dose treatment in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and progressive vestibular schwannomas. As...

Breast Cancer

Regional Disparities in Metastatic Breast Cancer Survival Between 1990 and 2011

In a study reported in Cancer, Judith A. Malmgren, PhD, and colleagues found marked regional differences in improvements in breast cancer–specific survival among women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer between 1990 and 2011, with the best rates found in an institutional cohort.

Study ...

Hepatobiliary Cancer

Studies Report Efficacy of Proton Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Two new studies published in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics focused on the use of proton radiation therapy to treat patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The first study, by Sanford et al, found that proton radiation may extend overall survival compared to...

Lung Cancer

Nearly One-Quarter of Completed Lung Cancer Clinical Trials Remain Unpublished

A new analysis has found that the results of up to one-fourth of completed lung cancer clinical trials are not published. This finding was published in a research letter by Al-Shbool et al in JAMA Network Open. 

“It is surprising to see that a quarter of trials that have been completed end up not...

Leukemia

ADMIRAL: Gilteritinib vs Chemotherapy in Relapsed or Refractory FLT3-Mutated AML

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Perl et al, the phase III ADMIRAL trial showed improved overall survival with the oral FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitor gilteritinib vs salvage chemotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia...

Colorectal Cancer

American College of Physicians Issues Guidance on Colorectal Cancer Screening for Average-Risk, Asymptomatic Adults Aged 50 to 75 Years

The American College of Physicians has issued a new guidance statement on colorectal cancer screening, which recommends screening for average-risk adults who do not have symptoms and are between the ages of 50 and 75 years. The guidelines were published by Qaseem et al in Annals of Internal...

Prostate Cancer

DNA Vaccine for Patients With Progressive, Nonmetastatic, Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer

In a phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, McNeel et al found that a DNA vaccine (pTVG-HP) encoding prostatic acid phosphatase did not improve 2-year metastasis-free survival vs control treatment in patients with progressive, nonmetastatic, castration-sensitive prostate...

Breast Cancer

Is There a Difference in Breast Cancer Recurrence Rates After Surgery With Regional vs General Anesthesia?

In a trial reported in The Lancet, Sessler et al found no difference in breast cancer recurrence after surgery with regional anesthesia-analgesia using paravertebral block and propofol vs general anesthesia with the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane and opioid analgesia. They also found no difference ...

FDA Office of Hematology Oncology Products Reorganizes, Renamed Office of Oncologic Diseases

As part of modernization plans approved in September 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) office responsible for reviewing applications for new and existing cancer therapies has reorganized and been renamed. The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Office of Hematology and...

Breast Cancer

Outcomes in Patients With Early Breast Cancer and High 21-Gene Recurrence Score Treated With Adjuvant Chemotherapy Plus Endocrine Therapy: Secondary Analysis of TAILORx

In a secondary analysis of the phase III TAILORx trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Joseph Sparano, MD, and colleagues found that adjuvant chemotherapy plus endocrine therapy produced good 5-year outcomes among women with hormone receptor–positive, HER2-negative, axillary node–negative breast cancer...

Colorectal Cancer

ctDNA and Recurrence Risk After Surgery and Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage III Colon Cancer

In a cohort biomarker study reported in JAMA Oncology, Tie et al showed that the circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA)-positive status after surgery and chemotherapy was associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence in patients with stage III colon cancer.

Study Details

The Australian multicenter ...

Lymphoma

Long-Term Follow-up of Patients With Nodular Lymphocyte–Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated in GHSG Trials

In an analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Eichenauer et al found that patients with newly diagnosed nodular lymphocyte–predominant Hodgkin lymphoma treated in German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) trials had good long-term outcomes overall.

Study Details

The analysis identified the...

Issues in Oncology
Cost of Care

Study Finds Nearly One in Four Oncologists Rarely or Never Mention Cost When Discussing Genomic Testing

Nearly one in four oncologists report rarely or never discussing the costs of genomic testing with their patients, according to a new study led by American Cancer Society investigators. The study, published by Yabroff et al in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, found that oncologists...

Multiple Myeloma

Levofloxacin Prophylaxis During Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma

In the phase III TEAMM trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Drayson et al found that prophylactic treatment with levofloxacin during the first 12 weeks of multiple myeloma treatment in newly diagnosed patients was associated with a significant reduction in first febrile episodes or death from any ...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

Patient-Reported Outcomes Observed With Durvalumab Treatment After Chemoradiotherapy for Stage III Unresectable NSCLC

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Hui et al, no clinically important differences in patient-reported outcomes were observed among patients receiving durvalumab vs placebo after chemoradiation for stage III unresectable non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the phase III PACIFIC trial.

The...

Breast Cancer

Factors Influencing Freedom From Distant Recurrence in Premenopausal Women With Hormone Receptor–Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

In a long-term analysis of the TEXT/SOFT trials reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Pagani et al found that potential benefits of escalating adjuvant endocrine therapy beyond tamoxifen alone in preventing distant recurrence may be minimal in premenopausal women with hormone...

Colorectal Cancer

Do Poorly Differentiated Clusters in Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer Offer Prognostic Value?

A study published by Yonemura et al in The American Journal of Surgical Pathology has shown a correlation between the poorly differentiated cluster grade in primary colorectal cancer tumors and metastatic lesions in the liver. The researchers wrote, “[Grade of] poorly differentiated clusters in...

Thyroid Cancer

2019 Annual Meeting of the American Thyroid Association Briefs

The American Thyroid Association held its 2019 Annual Meeting from October 30 to November 3 in Chicago. Below are brief summaries of important oral presentations on thyroid cancer from the meeting.

Incidence and Incidence-Based Mortality in a State

Results of a retrospective analysis of thyroid...

Head and Neck Cancer

AACR-NCI-EORTC: Activity of Tipifarnib in Patients With HRAS-Mutant Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

A small phase II study investigating the efficacy and safety of the investigational farnesyl transferase inhibitor tipifarnib in patients with recurrent and metastatic HRAS-mutant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma found the agent produced objective responses in the patient population. Based on...

Solid Tumors

AACR-NCI-EORTC: Investigational KRAS G12C Inhibitor for KRAS-Mutant Solid Tumors

The investigational KRAS G12C inhibitor MRTX849 yielded clinical responses in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colorectal cancer harboring KRAS G12C mutations, according to data from a phase I clinical trial presented at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference on Molecular...

Solid Tumors

AACR-NCI-EORTC: Selumetinib for Adult Patients With Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Inoperable Plexiform Neurofibromas

The investigational MEK inhibitor selumetinib showed clinical activity in adult patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-associated plexiform neurofibromas, according to preliminary results from an ongoing phase II study presented at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference on Molecular...

Immunotherapy

Association Between Prior Antibiotic Treatment and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy Outcomes

In a study presented in a brief report in JAMA Oncology, David J. Pinato, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that past but not concurrent use of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was associated with poorer treatment outcomes in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors for various cancers in...

Hepatobiliary Cancer

Postdiagnosis Use of Aspirin in Patients With Biliary Tract Cancer

In a study reported in a research letter in JAMA Oncology, Jackson et al found that postdiagnosis aspirin use was associated with significantly improved overall survival across biliary tract cancer types.

Study Details

The study involved 2,934 adult patients diagnosed with biliary tract cancer...

Lymphoma

Pretreatment Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcomes in Hodgkin Lymphoma

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Borchmann et al found that pretreatment vitamin D deficiency was associated with poorer progression-free and overall survival rates in patients receiving first-line treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma.

Study Details

The analysis involved 351...

Prostate Cancer

Long-Term Follow-up of Salvage Short-Term ADT Plus Radiotherapy After Radical Prostatectomy

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Carrie et al, the 112-month follow-up of the French phase III GETUG-AFU 16 trial has confirmed the initial 5-year report of the trial, which reported improved progression-free survival with the addition of short-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) to...

Breast Cancer

Long-Term Recurrence-Free Survival With the Addition of Adjuvant Trastuzumab to Chemotherapy in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

Long-term follow-up analysis of the NCCTG N9831 (Alliance) and NRG Oncology/NSABP B-31 trials, reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Chumsri et al, showed poorer recurrence-free survival in hormone receptor (HR)-negative vs HR-positive HER2-positive breast cancer, with the addition of...

Survivorship
Pain Management
Symptom Management

First Survivor Views Survey Highlights Barriers to Addressing Side Effects of Cancer Treatment

Barriers to accessing appropriate therapies to address the physical and psychological side effects of cancer treatment continue to persist for patients and survivors, according to results of the Survivor Views survey conducted by the American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network (ACS CAN).

...

Issues in Oncology

ASCO National Cancer Opinion Survey: Cancer Prevention, E-Cigarette, and End-of-Life Knowledge Gaps Reported

One in four Americans say they incorporate cancer prevention into their daily lives, according to ASCO’s third annual National Cancer Opinion Survey, despite research showing that as many as half of all cancer cases are preventable. The survey found low levels of awareness of known cancer risk...

Breast Cancer

MONARCH 2: Interim Analysis of Overall Survival With Abemaciclib/Fulvestrant in Hormone Receptor–Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

As reported in JAMA Oncology by George W. Sledge, Jr, MD, and colleagues, an interim analysis of overall survival in the phase III MONARCH 2 trial has shown a significant advantage for abemaciclib plus fulvestrant vs fulvestrant alone in women with advanced hormone receptor–positive, HER2-negative...

Colorectal Cancer

Panitumumab Plus Modified FOLFOXIRI for First-Line Treatment of RAS Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

In the German phase II VOLFI trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Modest et al found that panitumumab plus modified FOLFOXIRI (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan) used as first-line therapy improved the objective response rate in patients with RAS wild-type...

Issues in Oncology
Survivorship

Leydig Cell Failure and Dysfunction and Associated Adverse Health Outcomes in Male Survivors of Childhood Cancer

In a retrospective analysis from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Chemaitilly et al identified the prevalence of and risk factors for failure and dysfunction of Leydig cells, which are responsible for testosterone secretion, and associated adverse...

Hepatobiliary Cancer

Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound May Help to Predict Cirrhotic Nodule Transformation to Hepatocellular Carcinoma

An article published by Lin et al in the American Journal of Roentgenology has identified sonographic biomarkers that may predict eventual malignant transformation of pathologically confirmed cirrhotic nodules for patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Lead investigator Manxia Lin, MD, of...

Health-Care Policy
Palliative Care

Palliative Care Bill Unanimously Approved by U.S. House of Representatives

On October 28, the U.S. House of Representatives unanimously approved the Palliative Care and Hospice Education and Training Act (PCHETA). The bipartisan bill would increase federal research funding for palliative care—including pain and symptom management—and would establish palliative care...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

CASPIAN Trial: Addition of Durvalumab to Platinum/Etoposide for First-Line Treatment of Extensive-Stage SCLC

As reported in The Lancet by Luis Paz-Ares, MD, and colleagues, an interim analysis of the phase III CASPIAN trial has shown an overall survival benefit with the addition of durvalumab to platinum (either cisplatin or carboplatin)/etoposide chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of...

Immunotherapy
Solid Tumors

Pembrolizumab for Patients With Advanced Adrenocortical Carcinoma

In a single-center phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Raj et al found that pembrolizumab showed activity in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.

Study Details

Thirty-nine patients with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma were enrolled in the study between February 2016 and...

Head and Neck Cancer
Symptom Management

Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic for Reducing Severe Oral Mucositis From Concurrent Radiotherapy and Cisplatin in Head and Neck Cancer

In a phase IIb trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Anderson et al found that the superoxide dismutase mimetic GC4419 was effective in reducing the duration, incidence, and severity of severe oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer receiving concurrent radiotherapy and...

Skin Cancer

Relapse-Free Survival After Vismodegib Discontinuation in Patients With Complete Remission of Locally Advanced Basal Cell Carcinoma

In a French retrospective study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Herms et al found that long-term response is frequently maintained in patients discontinuing vismodegib after complete remission of locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, and that responses can be achieved with vismodegib ...

Pancreatic Cancer
Global Cancer Care

Global Burden of Pancreatic Cancer From 1990–2017

The incidence and mortality rates of pancreatic cancer have increased in 195 countries and territories over a 27-year period, according to a systematic analysis performed within the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 and published in The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology. The study is the...

Gastroesophageal Cancer
Gastrointestinal Cancer

Trifluridine/Tipiracil Survival Benefit for Patients With Metastatic Gastric Cancer Who Had or Had Not Undergone Prior Gastrectomy

In a subgroup analysis of the phase III TAGS trial (TAS-102 Gastric Study) reported in JAMA Oncology, David H. Ilson, MD, PhD, and colleagues found positive trends in survival benefit with trifluridine/tipiracil treatment vs placebo for patients with pretreated metastatic gastric cancer or...

Breast Cancer

Addition of Trilaciclib to Chemotherapy in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

In a phase II trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Tan et al found that the addition of the cell-cycle inhibitor trilaciclib to gemcitabine/carboplatin chemotherapy did not reduce the duration or incidence of severe neutropenia during chemotherapy in women with triple-negative breast cancer. A...

Pancreatic Cancer

Nab-paclitaxel/Gemcitabine/Cisplatin for Previously Untreated, Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

In a phase Ib/II pilot study reported in JAMA Oncology, Jameson et al found that treatment with nab-paclitaxel, gemcitabine, and cisplatin was active in patients with previously untreated metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Study Details

In the study, 25 patients were enrolled between...

Breast Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Factors in Genetic Testing Decisions Among Women With a Personal and Family History of Breast Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Scott et al identified several factors that motivated breast cancer survivors with high genetic risk to undergo genetic testing and found that clinicians often failed to discuss all relevant factors in decision-making.

Study Details

The...

Issues in Oncology
Cost of Care

Health Insurance Literacy and Financial Hardship in Cancer Survivors

A new study published by Zhao et al in JNCI Cancer Spectrum has linked health insurance literacy with medical financial hardship as well as nonmedical financial sacrifices among adult cancer survivors in the United States. The study’s authors say the study indicated that health insurance literacy...

Breast Cancer
Leukemia
Prostate Cancer
Lymphoma

FDA Pipeline: Treatments for HER2-Positive Breast Cancer, AML; Breakthrough Device for Prostate Cancer; Statement on Safety Information for Breast Implants

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Priority Review to trastuzumab deruxtecan for the treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer; granted Fast Track designation for bemcentinib for elderly patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML); granted Breakthrough...

Immunotherapy
Head and Neck Cancer

Addition of Bevacizumab to Chemotherapy in Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Argiris et al, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG)-American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Group–coordinated phase III E1305 trial has shown no overall survival benefit with the addition of bevacizumab to...

Immunotherapy
Lymphoma

Immunotherapy in Relapsed or Refractory Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

Findings from the phase Ib KEYNOTE-013 and phase II KEYNOTE-170 trials reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Armand et al indicated that pembrolizumab is highly active in relapsed or refractory primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL). The KEYNOTE-170 trial supported the 2018...

Leukemia
Genomics/Genetics
Immunotherapy

Gene Signature to Identify Benefit of Front-Line Fludarabine, Cyclophosphamide, and Rituximab in IGHV-Unmutated CLL

In a retrospective cohort study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Herling et al identified a 17-gene signature that distinguished patients with IGHV-unmutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) more likely to achieve long-term remission after front-line chemoimmunotherapy with fludarabine,...

Issues in Oncology
Multiple Myeloma

Study Finds Disparities in Treatment of African American and Hispanic Patients With Multiple Myeloma

African American and Hispanic patients with multiple myeloma generally start treatment with novel therapy significantly later than white patients, according to a study published by Ailawadhi et al in Blood Advances. The study found that, on average, it took about 3 months for white patients to...

Pancreatic Cancer
Supportive Care

2019 Supportive Care: Racial Disparities in Use of Hospice Care Near Death Among Patients With Pancreatic Cancer

A study investigating the utilization of hospice care among racial/ethnic minority patients following treatment for pancreatic cancer has found that African American and Hispanic patients who underwent surgical removal of the pancreas were less likely than white patients to use hospice services at...

Supportive Care
Pain Management

2019 Supportive Care: Anxiety, Depression, and Low Social Support Are Significant Factors in Cancer Pain Intensity

Pain is one of the most common symptoms associated with cancer and its treatment, and feelings of anxiety and depression can intensify the level of pain patients experience, according to the results from a study by Galloway et al that will be presented at the 2019 Supportive Care in Oncology...

Supportive Care

2019 Supportive Care: Oncology Massage May Relieve Symptoms of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

A new study has found that oncology massage therapy can provide symptomatic relief for a common and difficult-to-treat side effect of cancer treatment. Patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy experienced a sustained reduction in lower-extremity pain up to 6 weeks after completion...

Immunotherapy

Algorithm for Identifying Genetic Mutations Likely to Respond to Immunotherapy

A new model works to determine which genetic mutations may respond best to treatment with immunotherapy. Richman et al published the data on the model’s development in Cell Systems, and the algorithm, antigen.garnish, is already available online as an open source technology to serve as a resource.

...

Skin Cancer

No Survival Benefit With Complete Lymph Node Dissection vs Observation in Sentinel Node–Positive Melanoma

As reported by Leiter et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the final analysis of the German phase III DeCOG-SLT trial have shown no distant metastasis-free survival, recurrence-free survival, or overall survival benefit with complete lymph node dissection vs observation in patients with...

Solid Tumors
Immunotherapy

Pegilodecakin Plus Pembrolizumab or Nivolumab in Advanced Solid Tumors

In a phase Ib trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Naing et al found that the combination of pegilodecakin (pegylated interleukin [IL]-10) with the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab or nivolumab was active in previously treated advanced solid tumors. 

In the study,...

Prostate Cancer

Apalutamide Treatment for Metastatic Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer and Health-Related Quality of Life

In an analysis of the phase III TITAN trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Neeraj Agarwal, MD, and colleagues found that that treatment with apalatuamide was associated with preserved health-related quality of life, including pain and fatigue outcomes, in patients with metastatic...

Issues in Oncology

Exercise for Patients With Cancer to Minimize Treatment Cardiotoxicity

Tailored exercise may help to minimize cardiotoxicity in patients with cancer, according to a report published by D’Ascenzi et al in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.

Cardiovascular diseases are common side effects in patients with cancer. This is the result of cardiotoxicity, whereby...

Lymphoma
Symptom Management

FDA Pipeline: Designations for Acute Graft-vs-Host Disease, Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Fast Track designation to a therapy for steroid-refractory acute graft-vs-host disease and granted Orphan Drug designation to a therapy for peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

Fast Track Designation for T-Guard in Steroid-Refractory Acute...

Head and Neck Cancer
Issues in Oncology

Effect of Patient General Preference for More vs Less Medical Care on Intensity of Posttreatment Thyroid Cancer Surveillance

In an analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Evron et al found that patients with thyroid cancer who were declared disease-free after initial treatment were more likely to have increased numbers of physician visits and imaging tests if they reported a generalized preference for...

Breast Cancer
Geriatric Oncology

Pooled Analysis of Outcomes in Older Women With Metastatic Breast Cancer Receiving CDK4/6 Inhibitor Plus Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy

In a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pooled analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Howie et al found that progression-free survival and benefit were similar for older vs younger postmenopausal women treated with combined cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) plus aromatase...

Issues in Oncology

Virtual Molecular Tumor Boards May Help to Efficiently Deliver Precision Medicine to Patients

Using virtual, cloud-based, interconnected computing techniques applied to 51,000 variables, researchers reduced the time needed to assess a patient’s tumor profile and suitability for clinical trials from 14 to 4 days. This method also increased the number of cases that could be assessed compared...

Lung Cancer

IASLC North America: Lung Cancer Screening Among First Responders

National lung cancer screening guidelines are inadequate to diagnose patients who contract lung cancer from occupational exposure, including first responders, according to a study reported by Vershalee Shukla, MD, at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer’s (IASLC) North America ...

Symptom Management

Romiplostim for Patients With Chemotherapy-Induced Thrombocytopenia

In a single-center phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Soff et al found that treatment with romiplostim was effective in rapidly correcting chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia, with maintenance treatment being effective in reducing risk of recurrent chemotherapy-induced...

Lung Cancer

RELAY Trial: Addition of Ramucirumab to Erlotinib in Previously Untreated, EGFR-Mutated Advanced NSCLC

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Nakagawa et al, the phase III RELAY trial has shown that the addition of the VEGFR2 inhibitor ramucirumab to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib improved progression-free survival in treatment-naive, advanced EGFR-mutated non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Study...

Gastroesophageal Cancer
Immunotherapy

Nivolumab vs Chemotherapy in Previously Treated Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Kato et al, the phase III ATTRACTION-3 trial conducted in predominantly Asian patients has shown a survival benefit with nivolumab vs paclitaxel or docetaxel in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who were refractory to or intolerant of...

Breast Cancer
Cost of Care

Deviation From NCCN Guidelines May Result in Greater Costs for Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer

A study published by Williams et al in JNCCN—Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network found that direct costs for patients with metastatic breast cancer increased when their treatment differed from recommendations found in the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology® (NCCN...

Solid Tumors

Anti-GD2 Monoclonal Antibody Plus Induction Chemotherapy in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

A phase II study evaluating whether combining an investigational anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody with induction chemotherapy improved outcomes in children with newly diagnosed high-risk neuroblastoma found that the therapy significantly improved 2-year event-free survival. Furman et al published the...

Skin Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

BRAF and MEK Inhibition in Advanced Melanoma With Rare BRAF Mutations

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Menzer et al found that combined BRAF/MEK inhibitor therapy appeared to be more active than single-inhibitor therapy in advanced melanoma with rare BRAF mutations.

Study Details

The study involved data from 103 patients with advanced melanoma ...

Sarcoma

Maintenance Chemotherapy Improves Survival in High-Risk Rhabdomyosarcoma

In the phase III RMS 2005 trial reported by Gianni Bisogno, MD, and colleagues in The Lancet Oncology, maintenance vinorelbine and low-dose continuous cyclophosphamide was associated with nonsignificant improvement in disease-free survival and significantly improved overall survival vs no further...

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal Cancer Screening With Fecal Immunochemical Testing, Sigmoidoscopy, or Colonoscopy for Patients Aged 50 to 79 Years Old

As reported in The British Medical Journal (BMJ) by Helsingen et al, a clinical practice guideline on colorectal cancer screening published as a BMJ Rapid Recommendations guideline indicates that previously unscreened individuals aged 50 to 79 years old with 15-year colorectal cancer risk of ≥ 3%...

Issues in Oncology
Lymphoma

Effect of Race and Ethnicity on Survival in Pediatric and Adolescent Hodgkin Lymphoma

In a Children’s Oncology Group (COG) study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Kahn et al found that event-free survival in pediatric and adolescent patients with Hodgkin lymphoma was similar by race and ethnicity in COG trials, but that adjusted overall survival was better in white...

Hematologic Malignancies
Issues in Oncology

High Blood Pressure and Cardiac Adverse Events in Patients Treated With Ibrutinib

Over half of patients treated with the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib developed new or worsened high blood pressure within 6 months of starting the medication, according to a study published by Dickerson et al in Blood. The analysis is also the first to tie ibrutinib-related...

Prostate Cancer

Acute Toxicity With Intensity-Modulated Fractionated Radiotherapy vs Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

In an analysis from the phase III PACE-B trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Brand et al found that shortened treatment courses with stereotactic body radiotherapy did not increase gastrointestinal or genitourinary acute toxicity vs intensity-modulated fractionated radiotherapy in low-risk to...

Lung Cancer

ASCO Breakthrough: Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Detecting Lung Nodule Locations and Characteristics

A computer-aided diagnosis system using deep-learning analysis to detect lung lesion locations and quantitatively characterize the lesions on computed tomography (CT) images offered a fast and convenient approach for assisting radiologists in the diagnosis of lung nodule pathologies. These findings ...

Solid Tumors

Plasma miR371 Expression as a Biomarker for Active Germ Cell Malignancy

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Nappi et al showed that plasma microRNA miR371 expression was associated with high specificity and positive predictive values in predicting active germ cell malignancy.

Study Details

The study included 111 patients with a history of or newly ...

Solid Tumors

ASCO Breakthrough: Blood-Based Screening Assay With a Novel Multivariate Cancer Risk Score Model

A novel multivariate cancer risk score model demonstrated 60% sensitivity at 98.5% specificity. These findings demonstrate that a blood-based cancer screening assay with a novel risk score model may be a viable method for detecting cancer in asymptomatic individuals, especially in populations at...

Solid Tumors

ASCO Breakthrough: Targeted Methylation Sequencing Assay May Provide New Tool for Cancer Detection Across Stages and Tissues of Origin

A study by Oxnard et al using bisulfite sequencing of plasma cell-free DNA to identify methylomic signatures for multicancer detection and tissue of origin found the assay achieved accurate detection of multiple cancers across stages and tissue of origin localization. The targeted methylation assay ...

Colorectal Cancer

Effect of Tumor Sidedness and Molecular Alterations on Outcomes in Patients With RAS/BRAF Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Morano et al assessed prognostic/predictive role of tumor sidedness and presence of uncommon molecular alterations in anti-EGFR treatment primary resistance in patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer.

Study Details

The...

Gynecologic Cancers

Care of Malignant Bowel Obstruction in Patients With Advanced Gynecologic Cancer

In a single-center retrospective study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Lee et al found that implementation of an interprofessional malignant bowel obstruction program changed care patterns and improved outcomes for women with advanced gynecologic cancers and malignant bowel...

Colorectal Cancer

Parenchymal-Sparing Hepatectomy for Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases

In a meta-analysis published by Deng et al in Cancer Medicine, researchers found parenchymal-sparing hepatectomy was associated with better perioperative outcomes vs extended hepatectomy for the treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastases, without compromising long-term oncologic outcomes.

The...

Skin Cancer

Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy vs Observation After Local Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastases

In a phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hong et al found that adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) was not associated with a significant benefit in distant intracranial control vs observation after local treatment of patients with one to three melanoma brain...

Lung Cancer

Addition of Metformin to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy in EGFR-Mutant NSCLC

In a single-center phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Arrieta et al found that the addition of metformin to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy resulted in improved progression-free and overall survival in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an activating EGFR mutation.

...

Sarcoma

High-Dose Chemotherapy vs Standard Chemotherapy and Whole-Lung Irradiation in Ewing Sarcoma With Pulmonary Metastases

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Dirksen et al, the R2Pulm trial showed no significant event-free or overall survival benefit with busulfan/melphalan high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (BuMel) vs standard chemotherapy with whole-lung irradiation in patients...

Multiple Myeloma
Issues in Oncology

Impact of Treating Facility, Provider Volume, and Patient-Sharing in the Treatment of Patients With Multiple Myeloma

A study published by Freeman et al in JNCCN—Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network found that generally, providers with more experience treating multiple myeloma have better outcomes than those with more limited experience. Providers who saw the most cases were more likely to be...

Breast Cancer

Recent Trends in the Treatment and Prognosis of Male Breast Cancer

A recent analysis published by Yadav et al in Cancer reviewed how the treatment of male breast cancer has evolved over the years 2004 to 2014. In addition, certain patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors were found to be linked with better survival.

Male breast cancer comprises 1% of all...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

ESMO 2019: Overall Survival With Immunotherapy Doublet vs Chemotherapy in Advanced NSCLC

As reported at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2019 (Abstract LBA4) and simultaneously in The New England Journal of Medicine by Matthew D. Hellmann, MD, and colleagues, the phase III CheckMate 227 trial has shown that nivolumab plus ipilimumab improved overall survival vs ...

Colorectal Cancer
Immunotherapy

ESMO 2019: Interim Analysis of the BEACON CRC Trial

In an interim analysis of the phase III BEACON CRC trial reported at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2019 (Abstract LBA32) and in The New England Journal of Medicine, Scott Kopetz, MD, PhD, and colleagues found improved overall survival and overall response rate in...

Hepatobiliary Cancer

Addition of Doxorubicin to Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Ghassan K. Abou-Alfa, MD, and colleagues, the phase III Alliance/CALGB 80802 trial has shown no progression-free or overall survival benefit with the addition of doxorubicin to sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The study was stopped early...

Solid Tumors

Use of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Unilateral Retinoblastoma With and Without Histopathologic High-Risk Features

In a Children’s Oncology Group study (COG ARET0332) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Chévez-Barrios et al found discrepancies between central and institutional identification of high-risk features of enucleated unilateral retinoblastoma, and that use of adjuvant chemotherapy based on...

Issues in Oncology
Lung Cancer

Preclinical Study Finds Exposure to E-Cigarette Smoke Increased Risk of Cancer in Mice

Exposure to e-cigarette smoke caused mice to develop lung cancer, according to findings from a preclinical study published by Tang et al in the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS).

The study found that 9 of 40 mice (22.5%) exposed to e-cigarette smoke...

Skin Cancer

Association Between Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk and Indoor Tanning Use in Women

In a Norwegian study published by Lergenmuller et al in JAMA Dermatology, researchers found evidence of a dose-response association between lifetime indoor tanning and risk of development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in women. The association was the same regardless of duration of use and...

Prostate Cancer

ESMO 2019: Cabazitaxel vs Abiraterone or Enzalutamide in Previously Treated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

As reported at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2019 (Abstract LBA13) and simultaneously published in The New England Journal of Medicine by Ronald de Wit, MD, and colleagues, the phase III CARD trial has shown improved imaging-based progression-free survival and overall...

Gynecologic Cancers

ESMO 2019: Veliparib Plus First-Line Chemotherapy and as Maintenance Therapy in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

In the phase III VELIA/GOG-3005 trial—reported at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2019 (Abstract LBA3) and simultaneously published in The New England Journal of Medicine—Robert L. Coleman, MD, and colleagues found that the use of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor ...

Skin Cancer
Lymphoma
Immunotherapy

Pembrolizumab for Relapsed or Refractory Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome

In a phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Khodadoust et al found that pembrolizumab was active in patients with advanced relapsed or refractory mycosis fungoides or Sézary syndrome.

In the U.S.-based multicenter trial, 24 patients with advanced mycosis fungoides (n = 9) or...

Gastrointestinal Cancer

Individual Patient Meta-analysis of Microsatellite Instability as a Prognostic Marker in Resectable Gastric Cancer

In an individual patient data meta-analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Pietrantonio et al found that microsatellite instability (MSI) status was a strong prognostic marker in patients with resectable gastric cancer.

The study involved data from 1,556 patients with resectable...

Breast Cancer

Addition of Ovarian Function Suppression to Ongoing Tamoxifen in Premenopausal Breast Cancer

In a phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology,  Kim et al found that the addition of 2 years of ovarian function suppression during ongoing tamoxifen treatment improved disease-free survival vs 5 years of tamoxifen alone in patients with estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer...

Gynecologic Cancers

ESMO 2019: Molecular Classification for Adjuvant Treatment in Women With High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

A study by Creutzberg et al investigated the survival outcome of combined adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy vs radiotherapy alone in women with endometrial cancer with high-risk features. The researchers found that 5-year recurrence-free survival varied according to a patient’s specific...

Lung Cancer

ESMO 2019: Liquid Biopsy to Determine Best Treatment for Patients With NSCLC

Patients with advanced lung cancer might soon be offered a blood test that could help decide the best treatment for them, instead of relying on tumor biopsy analysis. New data from the BFAST trial presented by Gadgeel et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2019 (Abstract ...

Prostate Cancer
Bladder Cancer
Hematologic Malignancies
Breast Cancer
CNS Cancers
Leukemia
Skin Cancer

FDA Pipeline: Advances in Prostate Cancer, Urothelial Cancer, Myelofibrosis, and More

In the past few weeks, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued regulatory decisions in prostate cancer, urothelial cancer, myelofibrosis, breast cancer, pediatric brain cancer, leukemia, and skin cancer.

Breakthrough Therapy Designation for Niraparib in Metastatic...

Pancreatic Cancer

ESMO 2019: High Conversion Rate With Certain Induction Chemotherapy Regimens Is Associated With Improved Overall Survival in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

Induction chemotherapy with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine or sequential FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan) followed by surgical exploration induced high conversion rates in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer, and conversion was associated with...

Skin Cancer
Immunotherapy

ESMO 2019: 3-Year Results From CheckMate 238: Adjuvant Nivolumab vs Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma

Superior recurrence-free survival benefit was observed with nivolumab vs ipilimumab—and was consistent across disease stage, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression levels, and BRAF mutation status—in patients with resected stage III/IV melanoma and a high risk of recurrence, according to ...

Colorectal Cancer

Reduced Risk of Recurrence and Improved Long-Term Outcome With Complete Mesocolic Excision in Right-Sided Colon Cancer

In a Danish population-based cohort study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Bertelesen et al found that complete mesocolic lymph node excision was associated with reduced risk of recurrence vs noncomplete excision approaches among patients with stage I to III right-sided colon adenocarcinomas. 

...

Gynecologic Cancers

Time Without Symptoms or Toxicity After Niraparib Maintenance Therapy in Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Ursula A. Matulonis, MD, and colleagues found that niraparib maintenance therapy was associated with increased time without symptoms or toxicity (TWiST) vs routine surveillance among women with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer in...

Immunotherapy

ESMO 2019: Study Suggests Difference in Response to Immunotherapy Regimens Between Sexes

A meta-analysis of 16 phase III randomized clinical trials evaluating programmed cell death protein 1/ligand 1 (PD-1/-L1) inhibitors either alone or in combination with chemotherapy for solid tumors has found that women derived significantly greater benefit from the addition of chemotherapy to...

Bladder Cancer
Immunotherapy

ESMO 2019: IMvigor130: Addition of Atezolizumab to Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma

Patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma demonstrated prolonged progression-free survival with the addition of atezolizumab to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy vs treatment with chemotherapy alone, according to phase III data from the IMvigor130 study presented by...

Solid Tumors

ESMO 2019: Lenvatinib for Advanced Thymic Carcinoma

Patients with thymic carcinoma that has progressed following treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy may benefit from treatment with lenvatinib, according to findings from a phase II study reported by Itoh et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2019 (Abstract ...

Head and Neck Cancer
Geriatric Oncology

ESMO 2019: Personalized Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer Based on Geriatric Assessment

Fit elderly patients aged 70 years and older with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were able to undergo rigorous treatment that provided benefit similar to that observed in younger patients. However, elderly patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma classified by geriatric assessment ...

Lung Cancer

ESMO 2019: ASCEND-7: Ceritinib for Patients With ALK-Positive NSCLC Metastatic to the Brain

Patients with ALK-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that was metastatic to the brain at baseline demonstrated whole-body, intracranial, and extracranial responses following treatment with ceritinib, according to findings from the phase II ASCEND-7 study presented by Chow et al at the...

Thyroid Cancer

ESMO 2019: LIBRETTO-001 Trial of Selpercatinib in RET Fusion–Positive Thyroid Cancer

Patients with advanced RET fusion–positive thyroid cancer and RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer had high rates of response following treatment with selpercatinib, according to findings from the phase I/II LIBRETTO-001 trial presented by Wirth et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology...

Breast Cancer

ESMO 2019: BROCADE 3: Veliparib Plus Carboplatin/Paclitaxel in Patients With HER2-Negative, Germline BRCA-Mutated Advanced Breast Cancer

Patients with advanced or metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer with a germline BRCA mutation demonstrated significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) with the addition of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor veliparib to chemotherapy (comprised of carboplatin/paclitaxel)...

Hepatobiliary Cancer

ESMO 2019: Ivosidenib in IDH1-Mutated Advanced Cholangiocarcinoma

Patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma with an isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation showed clinical benefit and improved progression-free survival (PFS) when treated with ivosidenib vs placebo, according to results presented by Ghassan K. Abou-Alfa, MD, at the European Society for Medical...

Palliative Care
Issues in Oncology

Is Implicit Bias Contributing to Time Disparities in Goals-of-Care Conversations With Minority Patients?

GUEST EDITOR

Addressing the evolving needs of cancer survivors at various stages of their illness and care, Palliative Care in Oncology is guest edited by Jamie H. Von Roenn, MD, FASCO. Dr. Von Roenn is ASCO’s Vice President of Education, Science, and Professional Development.

It has been well...

Colorectal Cancer

ESMO 2019: ctDNA as a Marker for Disease-Free Survival With Oxaliplatin Treatment in Stage III Colon Cancer

Patients with advanced colon cancer and plasma samples containing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) were less likely to achieve 2-year disease-free survival with oxaliplatin-based adjuvant treatment than patients with ctDNA-negative samples, according to findings presented at the European Society for...

Gynecologic Cancers

ESMO 2019: Studies Show PARP Inhibitors Improve Survival, Reduce Risk of Disease Recurrence or Death in Newly Diagnosed Ovarian Cancer

Two studies presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2019 Congress showed the efficacy of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in patients with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer.

In the PRIMA/ENGOT-OV26/GOG-3012 study, presented by González Martín et al (Abstract LBA1;...

Solid Tumors

ESMO 2019: Tailored Treatment vs Empiric Chemotherapy for Cancer of an Unknown Primary

Treatment tailored by comprehensive molecular gene-expression analysis of tumors from patients with carcinomas of an unknown primary site did not improve progression-free survival vs empiric chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin/gemcitabine. Fizazi et al presented these findings at the European...

Skin Cancer
Immunotherapy

ESMO 2019: 5-Year Survival and Response With Nivolumab/Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma

An update of results of the phase III CheckMate 067 trial at 5 years presented by Larkin et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2019 Congress showed that both nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab and nivolumab alone provided significant improvements in overall survival,...

Prostate Cancer

ESMO 2019: Men With Prostate Cancer May Avoid Postoperative Radiotherapy, Study Finds

Men with prostate cancer may be spared radiotherapy after surgery, according to late-breaking results of the RADICALS-RT trial presented by Parker et al at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2019 (Abstract LBA49_PR). The study answers a long-standing question about whether...

Hepatobiliary Cancer
Immunotherapy

ESMO 2019: First-Line Immunotherapy Shows Clinical Benefit in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

New data have shown a trend toward clinically meaningful improvements in survival and response rates and a favorable safety profile with first-line immunotherapy compared to current standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

The data, reported by Yau et al at the European...

Immunotherapy
Issues in Oncology

Prior Antibiotic Treatment and Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With Cancer

In a study presented in a brief report in JAMA Oncology, Pinato et al found that past—but not concurrent—use of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was associated with poorer treatment outcomes in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors for various cancers in routine clinical practice.

As...

Issues in Oncology

FDA Announces Voluntary Recall of Certain Ranitidine Capsules

This week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) alerted health-care professionals and patients of a voluntary recall of 14 lots of prescription ranitidine capsules distributed by Sandoz Inc, used to decrease the amount of acid created by the stomach. This recall is due to a nitrosamine...

Skin Cancer
Immunotherapy

Treatment-Free Survival as an Outcome Measure of Nivolumab/Ipilimumab Therapy in Advanced Melanoma

In a pooled analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Regan et al evaluated treatment-free survival as an outcome measure among patients with advanced melanoma receiving nivolumab/ipilimumab or either agent alone in the CheckMate 067 and 069 trials.

Study Details

The study involved...

Head and Neck Cancer

Addition of Induction Gemcitabine/Cisplatin to Chemoradiotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

In a Chinese phase III trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Zhang et al found that the addition of gemcitabine/cisplatin induction chemotherapy to standard platinum-based chemoradiotherapy improved recurrence-free survival vs chemoradiotherapy alone in locoregionally advanced...

Gynecologic Cancers
Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy for Recurrent or Metastatic Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Carcinoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Naumann et al, the phase I/II CheckMate 358 trial found that nivolumab showed activity in a cohort of patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical, vaginal, or vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.  

Study Details

A total of 24 patients were enrolled...

CNS Cancers

Risk of Subsequent Neoplasms in Childhood Cancer Survivors With Neurofibromatosis Type 1

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Smita Bhatia, MD, MPH, and colleagues found that childhood cancer survivors with pathogenic neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) variants had a greater risk of subsequent neoplasms than survivors without NFI variants and that radiotherapy was...

Breast Cancer
Colorectal Cancer
Lung Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Issues in Oncology

AACR Disparities: Uninsured/Underinsured, Lower-Income, and/or Minority Patients More Likely to Receive Cancer Diagnosis After ED Visit

Medicare patients from lower socioeconomic groups and several ethnic minority groups were more likely to be diagnosed with cancer following an emergency department visit, according to results of a study presented at the 12th American Association for Cancer Research Conference on The Science of...

Gynecologic Cancers

Origin and Taxonomy of Mucinous Ovarian Cancer

An international study has revealed the origin of mucinous ovarian cancer, confirming that unlike other types of ovarian cancer, this cancer arises from benign and borderline precursors at the ovaries and are not extraovarian metastases. These findings were published by Cheasley et al in Nature...

Lymphoma

Effect of MYC Rearrangement and Translocation Partner in DLBCL

In a Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Rosenwald et al found that MYC rearrangement was associated with poorer outcomes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) when accompanied by rearrangement of BCL2 and/or BCL6 and an immunoglobulin...

Colorectal Cancer

AACR Disparities: Mortality Rate for Colorectal Cancer Higher for Blacks Than for Whites in Major U.S. Cities

According to the American Cancer Society, excluding skin cancers, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both men and women in the United States and the second most common cause of cancer deaths. This year, it is expected that more than 51,000 people will die of the malignancy....

Issues in Oncology

AACR Disparities: Survey Finds LGBTQI+ Latinx Community Members Are Not Receiving Tailored Cancer-Related Information and Care

According to the National LGBT Cancer Network, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI+) individuals are at greater risk for several cancers, including cervical, oral, and breast cancers.

A survey to assess LGBTQI+ Latinx communities’ experience with cancer...

Hematologic Malignancies

Risk Model for Advanced Systemic Mastocytosis

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Jawhar et al have developed a risk model for advanced systemic mastocytosis that differentiates low-, intermediate-, and high-risk disease.

Study Details

The study included 383 patients with advanced systemic mastocytosis from the German Registry on ...

Issues in Oncology
Prostate Cancer

Adoption of Conservative Management of Prostate Cancer Among Urology Practices

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Modi et al found that the difference in the rates of use of conservative management of prostate cancer widened between lower-use and higher-use urology practices between 2014 and 2018.

Study Details

Use of a sample of Medicare claims...

Breast Cancer
Issues in Oncology

Two Studies Show Variation in Effectiveness of Mammography Across Populations

Two recent studies showed varying degrees of the effectiveness of mammography in different populations. In a report published in Radiology, Gao et al showed that in men at high risk for breast cancer, screening mammography may be able to increase the rate of detection of early-stage disease....

Hepatobiliary Cancer

Sorafenib Plus Transarterial Chemoembolization for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

During the past decade, scientists began to test whether the addition of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) to treatment with sorafenib could increase survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Scientists from Taiwan and Japan performed the first large, national-level,...

Lymphoma

Final Results of a Phase III Trial of PET-Guided Treatment in Early-Stage Favorable Hodgkin Lymphoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Fuchs et al, final results of the German Hodgkin Study Group phase III HD16 trial in early-stage favorable Hodgkin lymphoma indicate that combined modality therapy (CMT) is associated with better progression-free survival vs chemotherapy alone...

Colorectal Cancer
Genomics/Genetics

Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Carrying Class 3 BRAF Mutations May Respond to Anti-EGFR Therapy

Although between 8% and 12% of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer harbor a BRAF gene mutation, not all non-V600 BRAF alterations respond to EGFR antibody treatment, according to findings from a study by Yaeger et al published in Clinical Cancer Research. The study investigated whether...

Global Cancer Care

Cancer Survival, Incidence, and Mortality in Seven High-Income Countries From 1995–2014

As reported by Arnold and colleagues in The Lancet Oncology, the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership Cancer Survival in High-Income Countries (SURVMARK-2) project has found general improvement in cancer survival between 1995 and 2014 in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Ireland, New Zealand,...

Symptom Management

International Guidelines for Treatment and Prophylaxis of VTE in Patients With Cancer

The 2019 International Initiative on Thrombosis and Cancer (ITAC) has issued updated clinical practice guidelines for the treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. They were published by Farge et al in The Lancet Oncology.

The guidelines consist of...

Leukemia

SOHO 2019: Asciminib/Imatinib in Patients With Previously Treated CML

In a phase I trial, the combination of the BCR-ABL1 inhibitor asciminib and the small-molecule kinase inhibitor imatinib showed preliminary efficacy, safety, and tolerability in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) resistant to or intolerant of treatment with two or more prior tyrosine...

Genomics/Genetics
Immunotherapy

POLE/POLD1 Mutations Across Cancer Types and Association With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy Outcomes

In a research letter published in JAMA Oncology, Wang et al identified the frequency of mutations in DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE) and delta 1 (POLD1) genes across cancer types and found that these mutations were associated with better survival outcomes among patients receiving immune checkpoint...

Colorectal Cancer

Addition of Selective Internal Radiotherapy to Chemotherapy May Improve Resectability of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases

In a report published by Garlipp et al in the British Journal of Surgery, the addition of selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) to modified FOLFOX6-based chemotherapy (mFOLFOX6; oxaliplatin/leucovorin/fluorouracil) improved the resectability of initially unresectable colorectal cancer liver...

Prostate Cancer

ASTRO 2019: Long-Term Hormone Therapy May Increase Other-Cause Mortality in Men With Prostate Cancer Receiving Early Salvage Radiotherapy

Findings from the randomized phase III NRG Oncology/RTOG 9601 trial were initially reported in 2017, and showed that the addition of 2 years of antiandrogen therapy to postsurgical radiation treatment for men with recurrent prostate cancer increased their long-term overall survival rate. That study ...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

ASTRO 2019: Patterns of Disease Progression in Patients With Unresectable Stage III NSCLC: Analysis of the PACIFIC Trial

Andreas Rimner, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, presented an update of the landmark PACIFIC trial at the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) (Abstract LBA-6).

In earlier reports from the randomized phase III trial, Antonia et al had evaluated...

Gynecologic Cancers
Immunotherapy

Bevacizumab/Niraparib vs Niraparib Alone for Platinum-Sensitive Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

In the phase II NSGO-AVANOVA2/ENGOT-ov24 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Mansoor Raza Mirza, MD, and colleagues found that the combination of bevacizumab plus niraparib prolonged progression-free survival vs niraparib alone in women with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer.

Study...

Head and Neck Cancer
Symptom Management

ASTRO 2019: Machine-Learning Model May Accurately Predict Radiation Side Effects in Patients With Head and Neck Cancers

A study by Reddy et al investigating the use of a machine-learning model to predict which patients with head and neck cancer being treated with radiation may experience significant weight loss, feeding tube placement, and unplanned hospitalization has found that the model accurately identified the...

Issues in Oncology
Pain Management

Access to Cannabis Products for Patients With Cancer in a State With Restrictive Medical Marijuana Laws

Results of a survey reported by Singh et al in the Journal of Oncology Practice found that a population of primarily patients with cancer enrolled in Georgia’s medical marijuana program reported concerns about the legality of marijuana-related products and their ability to obtain the products.

As...

Prostate Cancer

ASTRO 2019: ORIOLE Trial: Observation vs SABR for Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer

The randomized, phase II ORIOLE trial studying the efficacy of targeted high-dose radiation for men with oligometastatic prostate cancer has shown that stereotactic ablative radiation (SABR) is an effective and safe option for patients who wish to delay hormone-suppression therapy. Data from the...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

ASTRO 2019: SBRT After Disease Progression on Immunotherapy Increases PFS in Patients With Metastatic NSCLC

Non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for the vast majority of all lung cancers—between 80% and 85% of those diagnosed in the United States—and is among the most deadly cancers for both men and women, exceeding the mortality rate of colon, breast, and pancreatic cancers combined.

The results...

Issues in Oncology
Gynecologic Cancers
Health-Care Policy

ASTRO 2019: Effect of Closure of Women’s Health Clinics From 2010 to 2013 on Cervical Cancer Screening and Detection

Following the closure of nearly 100 women’s health clinics across the United States from 2010 to 2013, fewer women were screened for cervical cancer; more women were diagnosed with advanced stages of the disease; and disease mortality rates rose. Findings from a new analysis combining several...

Hematologic Malignancies
Issues in Oncology

Single-Center Study of Human Herpesvirus 6B Detection in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

In a single-institution study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hill et al found that detection of human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was associated with increased mortality in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with lower...

Breast Cancer
Survivorship
Symptom Management

Home-Based Exercise and Weight Loss Programs for Lymphedema Management in Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Schmitz et al, the WISER Survivor trial showed no benefit of home-based exercise and weight loss programs on lymphedema outcomes vs facility-based lymphedema care among overweight breast cancer survivors.

Study Details

In the trial, 351 overweight breast cancer...

Breast Cancer
Issues in Oncology

FDA Issues Drug Safety Communication on Lung Inflammation Due to Treatment With CDK4/6 Inhibitors

On September 13, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a drug safety communication warning that palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib—used to treat some patients with advanced breast cancer—may cause rare but severe inflammation of the lungs. The agency approved new warnings about...

Gynecologic Cancers

Neoadjuvant Cisplatin/Gemcitabine Followed by Standard Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

In a Brazilian single-center phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, da Costa et al found that neoadjuvant cisplatin/gemcitabine followed by standard chemoradiation therapy with cisplatin did not improve outcomes vs chemoradiation therapy alone in locally advanced cervical...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

WCLC 2019: KEYNOTE-024 Survival Update Shows Benefit With Pembrolizumab vs Chemotherapy in Advanced NSCLC

First-line pembrolizumab monotherapy provides durable long-term overall survival benefit compared to chemotherapy in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to data from the KEYNOTE-024 trial presented by Martin Reck, MD, PhD, at the International Association for the...

Lung Cancer

WCLC 2019: Selpercatinib in RET Fusion–Positive NSCLC

Patients with RET fusion–positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) comprise up to 2% of all NSCLC cases, but there are no targeted therapies currently approved for patients with this form of lung cancer. Selpercatinib (also known as LOXO-292) is an oral and highly selective investigational drug...

Lung Cancer

WCLC 2019: Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery vs Open Surgery in Lung Cancer

Video-assisted thoracic surgery was associated with lower in-hospital complications and a shorter length of stay compared with open surgery among British patients who were diagnosed with early-stage lung cancer, according to research presented by Lim et al at the International Association for the...

Lung Cancer
Multiple Myeloma
Sarcoma

FDA Pipeline: Breakthrough Therapy Designation in Lung Cancer, Orphan Drug Designations in Myeloma and Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to tepotinib for metastatic non–small cell lung cancer harboring MET exon 14 skipping alterations, and Orphan Drug designations to novel chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies in both multiple myeloma ...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

WCLC 2019: Final Overall Survival Results of IMpower131 Trial in Advanced Squamous NSCLC

Patients with stage IV squamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with high programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression treated with atezolizumab and chemotherapy experienced longer overall survival rates than those treated with chemotherapy alone. The data from the IMpower131 trial were...

Lung Cancer

WCLC 2019: Autoantibody Diagnostic Test Followed by CT Imaging May Improve Diagnosis, Reduce Mortality in Lung Cancer

A combination of the EarlyCDT-Lung Test followed by computed tomography (CT) imaging in Scottish patients at risk for lung cancer resulted in a significant decrease in late-stage diagnosis of lung cancer and may decrease lung cancer–specific mortality, according to research presented at...

Lung Cancer

WCLC 2019: BioMILD Trial of Blood MicroRNA Plus Low-Dose CT to Reduce CT Repeats in Lung Cancer Screening

Researchers from Milan reported that using a blood microRNA assay accompanied by low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening is safe and effective in screening patients for lung cancer. The results were shared at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 2019 World...

Issues in Oncology

WCLC 2019: Declaration From IASLC on Tobacco Cessation After Cancer Diagnosis

The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) used the platform of the 2019 World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC) to call attention to the importance of tobacco cessation after cancer diagnosis and urged all physicians to screen patients with cancer for tobacco use and...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

WCLC 2019: Pooled Analysis of CheckMate 017 and 057: 5-Year Outcomes With Nivolumab vs Docetaxel in Previously Treated NSCLC

Pooled data on two clinical trials demonstrated patients with previously treated non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with nivolumab had a greater than fivefold increase in 5-year overall survival rate compared to treatment with the chemotherapy docetaxel. Scott Gettinger, MD, of Yale...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

WCLC 2019: CASPIAN Trial Finds Addition of Durvalumab to Chemotherapy Improves Overall Survival in Patients With Extensive-Stage SCLC

The addition of durvalumab to chemotherapy improved overall survival in patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), according to research presented at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 2019 World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC) (Abstract PL02.11)....

2019 Lasker Awards for Basic and Clinical Medical Research and Public Service Announced

On September 10, The Lasker Foundation announced the winners of its 2019 Lasker Awards: Max D. Cooper, MD, of Emory University, and Jacques Miller, AC, FRS, FAA, of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, will receive the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award; H. Michael...

Breast Cancer
Immunotherapy

T-DM1 Plus Neratinib in Metastatic HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

In the phase Ib NSABP Foundation Trial FB-10 reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Jame Abraham, MD, and colleagues found evidence of activity of the combination of ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) plus neratinib in metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer and identified the dose of the...

Solid Tumors
Immunotherapy

Pamiparib Plus Tislelizumab in Advanced Solid Tumors

In an Australian phase Ia/b trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Friedlander et al found evidence of activity of the combination of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor pamiparib and the programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor tislelizumab in patients with previously treated advanced...

Lung Cancer

WCLC 2019: Screening Efficacy of PLCOm2012 vs USPSTF Criteria

Researchers reported that a prospective trial comparing two screening methods for patients at risk of developing lung cancer found that a model used by Canadian, Australian, and European public health organizations detected more cancers than the screening model used by the United States Preventive...

Lung Cancer
Issues in Oncology

WCLC 2019: Survey Findings on Evidence-Based Guidelines for Molecular Testing in Lung Cancer

One-third of those who responded to a survey reported they are unaware of evidence-based guidelines that support the use of molecular testing in lung cancer, according to results from the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Global Survey on Molecular Testing in Lung...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

WCLC 2019: First-Line Nivolumab/Ipilimumab in Special Populations With NSCLC

First-line therapy consisting of nivolumab plus ipilimumab showed a consistent safety profile in special populations with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to research presented by Fabrice Barlesi, MD, PhD, of Aix-Marseille University, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille...

Lung Cancer

WCLC 2019: Safety and Toxicity of AMG 510 for KRAS G12C–Mutated, Advanced NSCLC

In a clinical trial testing the toxicity of a KRAS inhibitor, the treatment demonstrated early promising antitumor activity and few adverse side effects in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring a KRAS G12C mutation. The research was presented by Govindan et al at the...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

WCLC 2019: Two Studies Show Tumor Mutational Burden Not Associated With Pembrolizumab Efficacy in NSCLC

At the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 2019 World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC), two presentations showed that tumor mutational burden is not associated with the efficacy of pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy in patients with non–small cell lung cancer...

Gynecologic Cancers

2019 Quality Care: Improving Caregiver Identification and Support in a Gynecologic Oncology Practice

In a study reported at the ASCO Quality Care Symposium and simultaneously published in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Campbell et al found that an ASCO Quality Training Program Project—the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) initiative—resulted in improvement in primary caregiver identification and...

Symptom Management
Pain Management

2019 Quality Care: Improving Documentation of Pain and Constipation Assessment and Management

In a study reported at the ASCO Quality Care Symposium and simultaneously published in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Chineke et al found that a Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) initiated in collaboration with ASCO at the Georgia Cancer Center for Excellence (GCCE) at Grady Health...

Issues in Oncology

2019 Quality Care: Intervention to Improve Rates of Resident Advanced Care Planning Documentation

In a single-center study reported at the ASCO Quality Care Symposium and simultaneously published in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Switzer et al found that an intervention consisting of a resident training module and use of a best practice alert (BPA) in electronic medical records (EMRs)...

Gynecologic Cancers
Immunotherapy

Avelumab for Mismatch Repair–Deficient and Mismatch Repair–Proficient Endometrial Cancer

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Panagiotis A. Konstantinopoulos, MD, PhD, and colleagues found evidence of promising activity of the programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor avelumab in mismatch repair–deficient (MMRD) recurrent or persistent endometrial...

Hepatobiliary Cancer

Real-Time ctDNA Evaluation in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

In a study published in the Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Mody et al described results from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) testing in a real-time clinical context. The authors wrote, “[ctDNA assessment] holds incredible promise for early...

Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Leukemia
Lung Cancer
Solid Tumors
Colorectal Cancer
Hepatobiliary Cancer

FDA Pipeline: Fast Track Designation in Myelodysplastic Syndrome and AML, Plus Multiple Breakthrough Designations

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Fast Track designation to magrolimab in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The agency also granted Breakthrough Therapy designations in lung cancer and desmoid tumors, as well as Breakthrough Device designations...

Lymphoma

Tumor Immune Infiltration and Disease Progression in Follicular Lymphoma

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Tobin et al found that low tumor immune infiltration—indicated by low programmed cell death ligand 2 (PD-L2) expression—was associated with earlier disease progression in follicular lymphoma.

As stated by the investigators, “Understanding the ...

Pancreatic Cancer

ASTRO Guideline on Use of Radiation Therapy for Patients With Pancreatic Cancer

A new clinical guideline from the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) provides recommendations on the use of radiation therapy to treat patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, including when radiation treatments are appropriate, as well as the optimal dosing, timing, and...

Gynecologic Cancers

Does PTSD Increase the Risk of Developing Ovarian Cancer?

Women who experienced six or more symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at some point in life had a twofold greater risk of developing ovarian cancer compared with women who never experienced any PTSD symptoms. These findings were published by Roberts et al in Cancer Research.

The...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

Does the Addition of Bevacizumab to Erlotinib in Advanced EGFR-Mutant NSCLC Improve PFS?

In a phase II trial reported in JAMA OncologyThomas E. Stinchcombe, MD, and colleagues found that the addition of bevacizumab to erlotinib did not significantly improve progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Study Details

The...

Breast Cancer

Neoadjuvant Talazoparib for Operable BRCA-Mutated Breast Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Jennifer K. Litton, MD, and colleagues found that 6 months of neoadjuvant talazoparib therapy resulted in a high rate of residual cancer burden (RCB) of 0 (pathologic complete response) in patients with stage I–III breast cancer with germline ...

Survivorship

Solid Organ Transplantation in Aging Survivors of Childhood Cancer

A retrospective analysis from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study reported in The Lancet Oncology by Dietz et al found that the need for solid organ transplantation was infrequent in aging survivors of childhood cancer, with greater organ-specific risk being associated with particular therapeutic...

Issues in Oncology

Association Between Postdischarge Bleeding in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome and Subsequent Cancer Diagnosis

Bleeding during the first 6 months after discharge from the hospital for acute coronary syndrome may be linked to subsequent cancer diagnosis, according to research presented by Muñoz Pousa et al at the European Society of Cardiology Congress 2019 (Abstract P677).

“Our results suggest that patients ...

Issues in Oncology

New Report Finds Cancer Drugs Account for Over a Quarter of All New Drug Approvals in the United States

Cancer drugs currently account for 27% of all new drug approvals in the United States since 2010—an increase from the 4% share they occupied in the 1980s, a newly completed analysis summarized in the most recent issue of the Tufts CSDD Impact Report.

From 1980 through 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug...

Issues in Oncology
Cost of Care

2019 Quality Care: Cost of Treatment, Prior Authorization of Treatment Plans May Cause Barriers to Care

Drug costs and requirements for prior authorization of treatment plans pose barriers to cancer treatment and can potentially affect outcomes for many patients, according to two studies that will be presented at the ASCO Quality Care Symposium.

The studies respectively examine how the high...

Issues in Oncology

2019 Quality Care: Socioeconomic Deprivation and Outcomes in Cancer Clinical Trials

In a study to be presented by Unger et al at the 2019 ASCO Quality Care Symposium, researchers found patients living in socioeconomically deprived areas were more likely to experience worse survival in cancer clinical trials, even after adjustments for race and insurance (Abstract 162).

Methods

...

Issues in Oncology

2019 Quality Care: End-of-Life Care in Western Washington State vs Alberta, Canada

In a study to be presented by Khaki et al at the 2019 ASCO Quality Care Symposium, researchers found more aggressive end-of-life measures—including use of chemotherapy and admissions to the intensive care unit (ICU)—were employed in the last 30 days of life in Western Washington state vs Alberta,...

Kidney Cancer
Immunotherapy

Individualized Axitinib Regimens After Immunotherapy for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

In a phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Ornstein et al found that individualized axitinib regimens showed activity in patients with locally recurrent or metastatic renal cell carcinoma who had previously received immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, although the progression-free...

Leukemia
Survivorship

Risk of Infections in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Pelland-Marcotte et al found that survivors of childhood leukemia remained at significantly increased risk of infection compared with matched controls during an extended period following completion of treatment.  

Study Details

The...

Hematologic Malignancies
Issues in Oncology

Reducing Time to Chemotherapy Initiation in Patients Electively Admitted to a Hematologic Malignancy Service

In a single-institution study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Galeas et al found that intervention in key drivers in the care process could reduce the time to initiation of chemotherapy in patients with elective admission to a hematologic malignancy service.

Study Details

The goal of...

Issues in Oncology

Analysis of HPV-Related Cancers Reported From 2012 to 2016

During 2012–2016, an average of approximately 34,800 human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers were reported each year, according to a new study published by Senkomago et al in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Among the cancers probably caused by HPV, 92% are attributable to the HPV types ...

Issues in Oncology

FDA Recommendation on Duodenoscopes With Disposable Components

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended that duodenoscope manufacturers and health-care facilities transition to different types of duodenoscopes that may pose less risk to patient safety. Specifically, because of challenges with cleaning these devices for reuse and persistent...

Breast Cancer

Pyrotinib or Lapatinib With Capecitabine in Previously Treated HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer

In a Chinese phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Ma et al, the combination of the pan-ErbB inhibitor pyrotinib and capecitabine improved response rate vs lapatinib/capecitabine in women with HER2-positive relapsed or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with...

Genomics/Genetics
Leukemia

Chromosomal Abnormalities and Prognosis in NPM1-Mutant AML

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Angenendt et al found that adverse-risk cytogenetics were associated with significantly poorer outcomes vs normal karyotype among patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutation.

As stated by the...

Hepatobiliary Cancer
Pancreatic Cancer

Results From the TAPUR Study on Palbociclib for Pancreatic Cancer and Cholangiocarcinoma

New results from ASCO’s Targeted Agent and Profiling Utilization Registry (TAPUR) study have demonstrated that single-agent palbociclib has no meaningful clinical activity in patients with CDKN2A-mutated or -deleted advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. These findings were...

Issues in Oncology
Survivorship

What Role Do Physicians Play in Health Promotion Among Patients With Cancer?

A recent study published by Stump et al in Cancer indicated that certain physicians who care for patients with cancer do not often promote healthy lifestyle changes to cancer survivors, and they may fear that providing such advice would distress or overwhelm patients. The findings are noteworthy...

Kidney Cancer
Immunotherapy

Extended Follow-up of CheckMate 214: Nivolumab/Ipilimumab vs Sunitinib as First-Line Treatment for Advanced RCC

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Robert J. Motzer, MD, and colleagues, extended follow-up of the phase III CheckMate 214 trial has shown a maintained survival benefit for first-line nivolumab/ipilimumab vs sunitinib in patients with previously untreated intermediate- or poor-risk advanced...

Issues in Oncology
Survivorship

High-Deductible Health Plans, Access to Care, and Emergency Department Use Among Cancer Survivors

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Zheng et al found that patients with cancer and high-deductible health plans had increases in delayed/forgone care, an effect that was attenuated for those with health savings accounts. Emergency department use was similar across insurance...

Issues in Oncology

Exposure to Secondhand E-Cigarette Aerosols Increasing Among Middle and High School Students

A growing number of middle and high school students are being exposed to secondhand aerosols from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) by living with or being around individuals who are vaping, according to data from a national survey. Such exposure increased rapidly in 2018 compared to the years...

Colorectal Cancer
Issues in Oncology

Text Instructions and Reminders May Improve Colonoscopy Adherence Rates

Having text message conversations with patients 1 week before they are scheduled for a colonoscopy decreased “no-show” rates, according to a recent study published by Mahmud et al in Health Education & Behavior. Through sending reminders and instruction, the team increased the rate of...

Neuroendocrine Tumors

Prognostic Tool for Advanced, Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors Treated With a Somatostatin Analog

In the GETNE-TRASGU study (Spanish Group of Neuroendocrine and Endocrine Tumors Treated With Analog of Somatostatin in Gastroenteropancreatic and Unknown Primary NETs) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Carmona-Bayonas et al developed a predictive model for progression-free survival in...

Breast Cancer
Issues in Oncology

FDA Issues Draft Guidance Encouraging Inclusion of Male Patients in Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

A draft guidance issued by the U.S. Food Drug Administration (FDA) on August 26 includes draft recommendations for the inclusion of male patients in breast cancer clinical trials.

Historically, males either have not been included in clinical trials for drugs to treat breast cancer, or inclusion of...

Pancreatic Cancer

Role of the YAP Regulatory Network in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Researchers have decoded a chain of molecules that are critical for the growth and survival of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. They say their findings, published by Murakami et al in Developmental Cell, suggest that inhibiting the YAP biologic network may effectively regress early-stage...

Hepatobiliary Cancer

Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy and Reduced Mortality in Patients With Hepatitis C and a History of Liver Cancer

A study published by Singal et al in Gastroenterology demonstrated that treatment with antiviral therapy for hepatitis C reduced liver-related deaths by nearly 50% in patients with a history of liver cancer.

Previous Research

The finding builds on a December 2018 study by Singal et al also...

Immunotherapy
Skin Cancer

Phase Ib Trial of Toripalimab/Axitinib in Asian Patients With Advanced Mucosal Melanoma

In a Chinese phase Ib study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sheng et al reported activity with the combination of the anti–programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) agent toripalimab plus axitinib in patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma.

As stated by the investigators, whereas...

issues in oncology

Cancer in Adults Aged 85 and Older: Rates, Screening, and Survival

A new report published by DeSantis et al in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians examined cancer statistics in adults 85 and older and found incidence and mortality trends are generally similar to those in people aged 65 to 84 years, but disease screening rates are unexpectedly high and survival is...

hepatobiliary cancer

Aspirin Use May Improve Liver Function After Embolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

According to research published by Boas et al in the American Journal of Roentgenology, aspirin therapy is associated with improved liver function test results and survival after transarterial embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma. Findings In a retrospective review of 304 patients, among the ...

issues in oncology

Patient vs Provider Views on Goals and Adverse Effects of Cancer Therapy

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Duckworth et al found that many patients with cancer had more optimistic treatment goals vs their physicians and that patients who did not understand adverse effects associated with treatment had higher distress scores. As stated by the...

bladder cancer

Enfortumab Vedotin in Platinum- and Anti–PD-1/L1–Pretreated Urothelial Carcinoma

In the phase II EV-201 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Rosenberg et al found the antibody-drug conjugate enfortumab vedotin showed high activity in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma who had previously received platinum-based therapy and anti–programmed cell...

health-care policy
immunotherapy

CMS Finalizes Decision to Cover CAR T-Cell Therapy for Medicare Beneficiaries

On August 7, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) finalized the decision to cover U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy among recipients of Medicare benefits. FDA-approved CAR T-cell therapies are approved to...

prostate cancer
issues in oncology

Androgen-Deprivation Therapy May Increase Risk for QT Prolongation and Torsades de Pointes

In a study published by Salem et al in Circulation, researchers examined how several testosterone-blocking drugs commonly used in the treatment of prostate cancer affect the heart's QT interval. The longer a QT interval—typically measured by an electrocardiogram—the more at risk a ...

skin cancer

Is Vitamin A Intake Linked to Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk?

People whose diets included high levels of vitamin A had a 17% reduction in risk for developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, as compared to those who ate modest amounts of foods and supplements rich in vitamin A. These findings were published by Kim et al in JAMA Dermatology. Vitamin A is...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Comparison of Biomarker Assay Types in Predicting Response to Anti–PD-1/PD-L1 Treatment

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Lu et al found that multiplex immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence (mIHC/IF) assays appeared to have greater accuracy vs other types of assays in predicting response to anti–programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Maintenance Bevacizumab, Pemetrexed, or Both in Advanced Nonsquamous NSCLC

In the phase III ECOG-ACRIN 5508 trial, reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Ramalingam et al, maintenance pemetrexed or bevacizumab was associated with no significant improvement in overall survival vs the bevacizumab control group alone, and was associated with greater toxicity in...

breast cancer
cost of care

How Treatment Costs Affect Decisions for Breast Cancer Surgery

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Greenup et al found that cancer treatment costs influenced women’s decisions on breast cancer surgery. Researchers reported many women, even at the highest income levels, said that costs were higher than expected, and that most women...

symptom management
immunotherapy

What Causes Liver Injury During Treatment With Pembrolizumab?

Immunotherapy as a treatment for advanced solid cancers has rapidly evolved over the past decade—often yielding remarkable results. However, its use has also given way to new adverse effects, including drug-induced gastrointestinal and liver toxicities. “Checkpoint inhibitors are a...

breast cancer

AI May Improve Efficiency and Accuracy of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

Artificial intelligence (AI) may improve the efficiency and accuracy of an advanced imaging technology used to screen for breast cancer, according to a study published by Conant et al in Radiology: Artificial Intelligence. Digital breast tomosynthesis is an advanced method for cancer...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Cell-Free DNA Sequencing Highly Concordant With Tissue-Based Testing in the Detection of Microsatellite Instability Status

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is an important predictive biomarker of response to immune checkpoint blockade in solid cancers. However, despite recommendations by clinical practice guidelines, MSI is often not assessed, usually due to tissue insufficiency, unavailability, or infeasibility....

leukemia
immunotherapy

Ibrutinib/Rituximab vs Standard Chemoimmunotherapy in Previously Untreated CLL

In an interim analysis of the phase III E1912 trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Shanafelt et al found that ibrutinib/rituximab improved progression-free and overall survival vs standard chemoimmunotherapy in patients 70 years old or younger with previously untreated chronic...

gastroesophageal cancer

Can Lymph Node Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Predict Prognosis in Esophageal Cancer?

In a study published by Urakawa et al in Annals of Surgery, researchers found that the response of lymph nodes to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is more effective in predicting disease recurrence and patient survival in individuals with esophageal cancer than the response of primary tumors....

gynecologic cancer

Prognostic Biomarker for Progression of Moderate Cervical Dysplasia

In a study published by Louvanto et al in Clinical Infectious Diseases, researchers investigated the ability of a DNA methylation panel to determine between disease progression and regression among women of childbearing age with untreated cervical intraepithelial dysplasia. In the majority of...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Tumor-Associated Antigen Cytotoxic T Cells in Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors

In a phase I trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hont et al found that treatment of relapsed or refractory solid tumors with ex vivo expanded autologous multiantigen-associated specific cytotoxic T cells—or, tumor-associated antigen cytotoxic T cells—was safe and showed...

gynecologic cancer

Hysterectomy-Corrected Uterine Corpus Cancer Incidence in the United States

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Clarke et al found that hysterectomy-corrected rates of uterine corpus cancer—particularly nonendometrioid subtypes—have been increasing in the United States, with racial disparities in incidence and survival being observed. In...

solid tumors

FDA Approves Pexidartinib for Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor

On August 2, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted approval to pexidartinib (Turalio) capsules for the treatment of adult patients with symptomatic tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) associated with severe morbidity or functional limitations and not responsive to improvement with...

solid tumors
skin cancer
immunotherapy

FDA Pipeline: Breakthrough Therapy for Melanoma, Investigational New Drug for Advanced Solid Tumors

This week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to bempegaldesleukin in combination with nivolumab for advanced melanoma and cleared an investigational new drug application for a phase I trial of SB 11285 in advanced solid tumors. Breakthrough...

lymphoma

Can Treatment With Antibiotics Inhibit Malignant T Cells in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma?

Many patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma contract Staphylococcus aureus infections in the skin. In a new study, researchers have shown that aggressive treatment with antibiotics for patients with these infections not only inhibits the staphylococcal bacteria—but also the cancer...

gynecologic cancer
issues in oncology

Psychological Stress and Cancer-Specific Mortality in Patients With Cervical Cancer

Results from a large cohort study showed that psychological stress is associated with increased cancer-specific mortality among women with cervical cancer, independent of tumor characteristics and treatment modality. The findings support the integration of psychological screening and intervention...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Post Hoc 5-Year Follow-up of Pembrolizumab vs Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma

In a post hoc 5-year follow-up of the KEYNOTE-006 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Robert et al found that pembrolizumab maintained overall and progression-free survival benefits over ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. In the primary analysis from the trial, both pembrolizumab...

prostate cancer

Adjuvant Radiotherapy After Radical Prostatectomy vs Radical Prostatectomy Alone in Patients With Positive Margins or Extracapsular Extension

In patients with prostate cancer with surgical positive margins or extracapsular extension of their disease, the risk of disease recurrence postprostatectomy is higher than in cases where the cancer cells are confined within the prostate. The Finnish FinnProstataX study investigated...

issues in oncology
global cancer care

Global Burden of Pediatric and Adolescent Cancer in 2017

A recent analysis looked at the global burden of pediatric cancer through the lens of years of affected and lost life. This work shows a much greater burden of childhood cancer, placed largely in low- and middle-income countries, than previous estimates. The findings were published in The Lancet...

skin cancer
issues in oncology

Survey Finds Majority of Americans Are Unfamiliar With Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Nearly-three quarters of Americans are not familiar with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common type of cancer in the United States, according to a new survey conducted by The Harris Poll on behalf of The Skin Cancer Foundation. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is more common...

pancreatic cancer
immunotherapy

Durvalumab With or Without Tremelimumab in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

In the first stage of a phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, O’Reilly et al found poor activity of durvalumab with or without tremelimumab in metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Owing to the lack of efficacy, study expansion was not pursued.   The lead-in open-label safety ...

head and neck cancer
immunotherapy

Palbociclib Plus Cetuximab in Platinum- and Cetuximab-Resistant HPV-Unrelated Head and Neck Cancer

In a phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Adkins et al found that the combination of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor palbociclib and the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab showed activity in patients with either platinum- or cetuximab-resistant human papillomavirus...

sarcoma

Pazopanib in Advanced Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma

Findings from a cohort of a phase II study reported by Stacchiotti et al in The Lancet Oncology indicated activity of the antiangiogenic agent pazopanib in advanced extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. As noted by the investigators, this rare sarcoma has low sensitivity to cytotoxic chemotherapy,...

breast cancer

Ten-Year Update on Standard Adjuvant Chemotherapy vs Capecitabine in Older Women With Early Breast Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Muss et al, long-term findings from the phase III CALGB 49907 trial support the finding from the primary analysis—that standard adjuvant chemotherapy improved recurrence-free survival vs capecitabine in women aged 65 years or older with early ...

gastroesophageal cancer
immunotherapy

FDA Approves Pembrolizumab for Some Patients With PD-L1–Positive Esophageal Cancer

On July 30, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor pembrolizumab (Keytruda) as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus whose tumors express programmed ...

prostate cancer

FDA Approves Darolutamide for Nonmetastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

On July 30, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved darolutamide (Nubeqa) for the treatment of nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Approval was based on the ARAMIS study, a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 1,509 patients with...

breast cancer

Overall Survival With the Addition of Ribociclib to Endocrine Therapy in Advanced HR-Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Im et al, an interim analysis of the phase III MONALEESA-7 trial has shown an overall survival benefit with the addition of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor ribociclib to endocrine therapy in pre- or perimenopausal women...

issues in oncology
global cancer care

WHO Releases Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic

Many governments are making progress in the fight against tobacco, with 5 billion people today living in countries that have introduced smoking bans, warnings on packaging, and other effective tobacco control measures—four times more people than a decade ago. However, a new World Health...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

Abdominal Fat and Mortality in Patients With Colorectal Cancer

For patients with colorectal cancer, new research shows a clearer connection than previously known between fat deposits in certain areas of the body and higher rates of death from all causes within 7 years of cancer diagnosis. These findings were published by Brown et al in the Journal of the...

gynecologic cancer

Post Hoc Updated Survival Analysis of Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy vs Radiotherapy in High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by de Boer et al, a post hoc updated survival analysis of the phase III PORTEC-3 trial has shown a significant overall survival benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy vs radiotherapy alone in women with high-risk endometrial cancer. A benefit in failure-free...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Rituximab Maintenance in Previously Untreated Follicular Lymphoma: 9-Year Follow-up

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Bachy et al, 9-year follow-up of the phase III PRIMA trial indicated a maintained progression-free survival benefit of maintenance rituximab vs observation following first-line induction therapy for follicular lymphoma. As in the prior reports from ...

kidney cancer
lung cancer
skin cancer
immunotherapy

Five-Year Survival in Heavily Pretreated Patients Receiving Nivolumab Monotherapy

As reported by Topalian et al in JAMA Oncology, long-term follow up of patients from a phase I expansion cohort study indicated 5-year overall survival rates of 34.2%, 27.7%, and 15.6% among patients who received nivolumab monotherapy for advanced melanoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and...

breast cancer
global cancer care

Automated Breast Cancer Detection Assay Using Fine-Needle Aspiration May Aid Patients in Developing Countries

A new laboratory test developed to identify chemical changes to a group of cancer-related genes may be able to accurately detect which breast tumors are cancerous or benign. Such a test could result in a more timely diagnosis of breast cancer for women in developing countries with less access to...

lymphoma

Germline BRCA2 Mutations and Risk of Pediatric or Adolescent Lymphoma

A research letter published by Wang et al in JAMA Oncology has found that inherited mutations in the BRCA2 gene are linked to an increased risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents. “The BRCA family of genes are known to be linked to risk for breast and...

bladder cancer

Erdafitinib in FGFR-Altered Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Loriot et al, the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1-4 tyrosine kinase inhibitor erdafitinib showed activity in FGFR-altered advanced urothelial carcinoma. Study Details The study enrolled patients from sites in 14 countries between May...

prostate cancer

ARCHES: Enzalutamide Plus ADT in Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Armstrong et al, findings from the phase III ARCHES trial have shown significant improvement in radiographic progression-free survival with enzalutamide plus androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) vs placebo plus ADT in men with metastatic...

breast cancer

Use of BI-RADS Breast Density and BCSC Risk to Identify Women for Discussion of Supplemental Imaging

In a study reported in JAMA Internal Medicine, Kerlikowske et al found that the combined use of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density and Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC)-defined risk for breast cancer may be an effective way of identifying women with dense...

leukemia
lung cancer
sarcoma
immunotherapy

FDA Pipeline: Label Update for Durvalumab in NSCLC; Applications Accepted in Epithelioid Sarcoma, AML

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the inclusion of overall survival from the PACIFIC trial in the U.S. prescribing information for durvalumab and accepted applications for a new drug in the treatment of epithelioid sarcoma and two orphan drugs in the treatment of acute...

bladder cancer

Conditional Reprogramming of Urine Cultures for Bladder Cancer

A research team led by investigators from Georgetown University Medical Center and Fudan University in China has devised a noninvasive and individualized technique for detecting and treating bladder cancer. Their findings were published by Jiang et al in Protein & Cell. The method uses a...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

Deep Natural Language Processing of Oncology Radiology Reports

Scientists have demonstrated that an artificial intelligence (AI) tool can perform as well as human reviewers—and much more rapidly—in extracting clinical information regarding changes in tumors from unstructured radiology reports for patients with lung cancer. These findings were...

issues in oncology

Clinical Deterioration Among Patients Hospitalized at a Tertiary Cancer Hospital

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Lyons et al found that transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) or on-ward death occurred in 9% of admissions to cancer wards at an urban tertiary cancer hospital. Investigators identified factors associated with clinical deterioration...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Pembrolizumab After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy in Advanced NSCLC

In a Dutch phase II study reported in JAMA Oncology, Theelen et al found that although use of stereotactic body radiotherapy prior to pembrolizumab increased the objective response rate vs pembrolizumab alone in metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the difference did not meet study...

lymphoma
issues in oncology

FDA Requests Manufacturer Recall of Some Textured Breast Implants

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requested that Allergan, the manufacturer of a specific type of textured breast implant, recall specific models of its textured implants from the U.S. market due to the risk of breast implant–associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL)....

hepatobiliary cancer

Radiofrequency Ablation vs Minimally Invasive Surgery for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma

In a retrospective analysis published by Si et al in Surgical Endoscopy, researchers found minimally invasive surgery led to higher survival and lower local recurrence in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma vs radiofrequency ablation, whereas radiofrequency ablation was associated with...

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