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Your search for Jo Cavallo matches 161 pages

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breast cancer
issues in oncology

Danish Study Finds an Increased Risk of Developing Breast Cancer in Women With Previous False-Positive Mammography

Although studies have shown that women with a false-positive result from mammography screening have an increased risk of developing breast cancer later in life compared with women who only have negative results, a new Danish study examined how much of the excess risk was due to misclassification...

lymphoma
issues in oncology

Survival of Patients With a Common Lymphoma Is Worse Among Those With Low Income

Despite advances in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma), including the introduction of rituximab (Rituxan), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients living in low-socioeconomic-status neighborhoods have a 34% greater risk of dying from...

issues in oncology

More Than 50% of Older, Sick Adults Receive Cancer Screenings Unlikely to Provide Benefit

Despite updates on cancer screening guidelines from several medical societies—including ASCO, the American Cancer Society, the American Urological Association, the American College of Physicians, as well as the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force—which use life expectancy and/or age as...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

Regular, Moderate Physical Activity Decreases Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women

Postmenopausal women who in the previous 4 years had undertaken the equivalent of at least 4 hours of walking per week had a 10% decreased risk of invasive breast cancer compared with women who were less active, according to a new study. The findings suggest that regular physical activity, even of...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology
issues in oncology

Gut Microbiome Analysis May Provide an Effective Screening Tool for Colorectal Cancer

An analysis of the gut microbiome in patients from three clinical groups representing the multistage progression in colorectal cancer has found that the composition of the gut microbiome differentiates individuals with healthy colons from those with adenomas and carcinomas. Adding gut microbiome...

issues in oncology

Study Finds Nearly 10% of Cancer Survivors Continue to Smoke Years After Diagnosis

Despite the fact that smoking increases the probability of cancer recurrence and reduces survival time, many cancer survivors continue to smoke. In a new study, nearly 1 in 10 cancer survivors reported being current smokers 9 years after their diagnosis, and 83% were daily smokers averaging about...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

Combination Afatinib and Cetuximab Yields Benefit in Lung Cancer Patients Resistant to EGFR Inhibitors

A phase Ib study has found that a combination of the EGFR-targeted agents afatinib (Gilotrif) and cetuximab (Erbitux) yielded clinical responses in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancer that had stopped responding to the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib (Tarceva) and gefitinib (Iressa). The combination...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Study Defines Four Molecular Subtypes of Gastric Cancer

Investigators of The Cancer Genome Atlas project have developed a molecular classification that divides gastric cancer into four major genomic subtypes, according to a study published in Nature. They include (1) tumors positive for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that display recurrent PIK3CA...

issues in oncology
breast cancer
issues in oncology

Gene Signature May Predict Which Breast Cancer Patients Will Benefit From Tamoxifen

A novel approach using ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analysis in combination with RNA expression data has identified a gene called USP9X that may predict which patients with estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer will benefit from tamoxifen therapy after surgery. The gene signature the researchers...

issues in oncology
colorectal cancer

Multidimensional Analysis Provides More Accurate Prognostic Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer

Using a multidimensional platform that combined nanofluidic technology for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and quantitative fluorescent immunohistochemistry for protein analysis, researchers at the Danbury Hospital Biomedical Research Institute were able to accurately predict...

skin cancer
issues in oncology

New Screening Approach Identifies Cancer Mutations in Melanoma That May Lead to More Effective Immunotherapies

Although cancer immunotherapy with adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes represents an effective treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma, the antigen targets recognized by these effective tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes remain unclear. According to a new study, a novel...

gynecologic cancers
issues in oncology

American College of Physicians Issues Guideline Recommending Against Routine Pelvic Exams for Asymptomatic Women

A new evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians (ACP) is recommending that physicians should not offer routine pelvic examinations to asymptomatic, average-risk, nonpregnant women. The recommendation stems from a review of 52 published articles from 1946...

pancreatic cancer
issues in oncology

Daily Low-Dose Aspirin Use May Reduce Risk of Developing Pancreatic Cancer

Men and women who took low-dose aspirin regularly had a 48% reduction in their risk of developing pancreatic cancer, according to a new study. In addition, the longer a person started taking low-dose aspirin, the greater the benefit, ranging from 48% reduction in people who started 3 years before...

gynecologic cancers
issues in oncology

Study Identifies Two Proteins as Markers of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Ovarian Cancer

A study by researchers from Danbury Hospital Biomedical Research Institute in Connecticut has found that patients with ovarian cancer who relapse shortly after neoadjuvant chemotherapy to shrink their tumor prior to surgery have high levels of expression of HGF and c-Met proteins. The...

issues in oncology

Analysis Shows Advertising by Cancer Centers Frequently Evokes Hope and Fear, but Provides Little Information

In a recent study in Annals of Internal Medicine, Vater et al analyzed the content of 409 unique clinical advertisements on television and in magazines placed by 102 cancer centers in 2012.  The researchers assessed each ad for types of clinical services promoted, information provided about...

issues in oncology

Carcinogens Found in Water Pipe Smoking May Increase Risk for Cancer

Researchers investigating the effects of water pipe smoking on the health of young adults have found elevated levels of nicotine, cotinine, tobacco-related cancer-causing agents, and volatile organic compounds, including benzene and acrolein, in the urine of users. Given the significant intake of...

issues in oncology
prostate cancer

Chronic Inflammation in Benign Prostate Tissue Is Associated With Aggressive Prostate Cancer

An analysis of prostate tissue biopsies collected from participants in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) has found that those whose benign prostate tissue had chronic inflammation had 1.78 times higher odds of having prostate cancer, and 2.24 times higher odds of having ...

issues in oncology
breast cancer

Novel Blood-Based Biomarkers May Predict Breast Cancer Recurrence and Treatment Response

Researchers have developed a quantitative multiplexed methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay called cMethDNA for a panel of 10 breast cancer–specific genes. The blood-based assay was found to be highly sensitive in detecting advanced breast cancer and monitoring tumor burden and ...

issues in oncology
colorectal cancer

High Prediagnosis BMI Is a Predictor for Poor Outcome in Colorectal Cancer Patients, Overriding Tumor Marker Linked to Better Prognosis

A large prospective study of patients with invasive colorectal cancer has found that higher body mass index 2 years before diagnosis increased risk of all-cause mortality after diagnosis, even in patients whose tumors harbored a marker that is usually associated with better prognosis. The...

issues in oncology
bladder cancer

DNA Test Can Help Predict Bladder Cancer Recurrence

A DNA methylation marker test performed on patients with noninvasive urothelial carcinoma can predict tumor recurrence with high sensitivity and specificity, according to a study by Su et al. The findings may help eliminate costly and unnecessary invasive exams and reveals the importance of DNA...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

FDA Panel Endorses Stool-Based DNA Colon Cancer Test

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) committee of genetic experts has determined that Cologuard, a stool-based DNA, noninvasive screening test for colorectal cancer, has demonstrated safety, effectiveness, and a favorable risk-benefit profile. The FDA is now considering the...

issues in oncology
issues in oncology

Study Finds Oncologists Have Mixed Attitudes on the Use of Genomic Testing

While many cancer researchers believe that predictive somatic genomic testing holds the potential to usher in the era of precision medicine for patients with cancer, research by Gray et al suggests that not all physicians are eager to embrace the technology. The variation in attitudes was in part...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

Report Shows More Screening Has Led to a 30% Drop in Colon Cancer Rates

Findings from a report by Siegel et al of the American Cancer Society (ACS) show that the rate at which people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the United States has dropped by 30% in the last 10 years among people aged 50 years and older. The researchers say the decline in incidence is due...

bladder cancer
issues in oncology

Patient With Bladder Cancer Shows Exceptional Response to Everolimus/Pazopanib Combination

A phase I study by Wagle et al of a combination of everolimus and pazopanib in patients with advanced solid tumors has identified a patient with bladder cancer who had a 14-month complete response. The patient had two concurrent mutations in mTOR, the target of everolimus (Afinitor), which may have ...

supportive care
issues in oncology

Study Finds More Hospital Deaths and Invasive Care for Terminal Cancer Patients Receiving Palliative Chemotherapy

Patients with terminal cancer who receive chemotherapy during the last months of their lives are less likely to die where they want and more likely to endure invasive medical procedures than those who do not receive chemotherapy, according to a study by Wright et al published in BMJ. The findings...

issues in oncology
cns cancers

Blood Test Could Improve Treatment for Children With Late-Stage Neuroblastoma

Research by Viprey et al has found that the detection of neuroblastoma mRNAs in peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirates from children diagnosed with stage IV neuroblastoma are independent predictors of event-free survival and overall survival. Their findings could help identify children with...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

Study Finds Possible New Gene Target for Lung Cancer

Researchers have identified a potential new gene mutation that may drive lung cancer development and growth. In a study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation by Imielinski et al, a patient with advanced lung cancer who was found to have the ARAF S214Csomatic gene mutation achieved nearly a...

issues in oncology
breast cancer
bladder cancer
issues in oncology

Molecular Features of Invasive Bladder Cancer Resemble Those of Breast Cancer

Using whole-genome mRNA-expression profiling, researchers have identified three molecular subtypes of muscle-invasive bladder cancers that shared molecular features with basal and luminal breast cancers. The findings have important implications for prognostication, the future clinical development...

skin cancer
issues in oncology

Study Identifies Key Mechanism Involved in Promoting Melanoma Proliferation

Researchers have identified a microRNA, miR-146a, that accelerates in the presence of BRAF and NRAS genetic mutations—which occur in 70% of melanoma cases—by activating the Notch signaling pathway. The finding could provide a new drug development target for patients with melanoma. The...

leukemia
issues in oncology

Normal Enzyme Pairs With Mutated FLT3 to Fuel AML Progression

Findings from a study by Puissant et al suggest that the wild-type form of enzyme SYK pairs with FLT3, the most commonly mutated enzyme found in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), to promote progression of the cancer. The molecular partnership also promotes AML cells’ resistance to treatment with...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

Study Identifies Possible Genetic Markers in Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

Scientists from the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) have uncovered the possible genetic origins of breast cancers that metastasize to the brain. The compendium of new genetic targets may be be used to identify potential methods of diagnosis and novel therapeutics for patients with...

leukemia
issues in oncology

Study Identifies Functional Cooperative Mutations of SETD2 in the Development of Acute Leukemia

Using data from the whole-genome sequencing of a pair of 3-year-old female monozygotic twins, one healthy and one with the multilineage form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a team of scientists from China and the United States have identified a novel molecular target that could offer a new...

solid tumors
bladder cancer
issues in oncology

Bladder Cancer Study Uncovers Potential Drug Targets and Molecular Similarities to Other Cancers

Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network have identified new potential therapeutic targets for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, a common cancer that causes about 150,000 deaths worldwide each year. The researchers also found molecular similarities to some subtypes of breast,...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

Following USPSTF Mammography Screening Guidelines Could Save Billions of Dollars and Result in More Women Screened

Although controversial, reducing mammography screening frequency from annually to biennially for women aged 50 to 74 could save the health-care system billions of dollars annually and screen 15% more women compared with the current practice, according to a cost analysis by O’Donoghue et al....

issues in oncology

ASCO Survey of Oncologists Finds High Overall Career Satisfaction, but Nearly Half Report Burnout

A survey of oncologists by Shanafelt et al has found that approximately 45% had at least one symptom of burnout, with risk being greatest among younger oncologists and those spending more hours per week devoted to direct patient care. However, overall career satisfaction remains high, especially...

gynecologic cancers
issues in oncology

Study Shows 20% of Women With Ovarian Cancer Have Inherited Genetic Mutations That Increase Risk of Disease

A large-scale genetic analysis of women with ovarian cancer with no known family histories of breast or ovarian cancer has found that one-fifth of them had inherited alterations in genes known to be associated with these cancers. The findings could lead to the development of better screening...

multiple myeloma
issues in oncology

Multiple Myeloma Study Shows Widespread Genetic Heterogeneity

A detailed study of tissue samples from more than 200 patients with multiple myeloma has found that an individual patient’s tumor can harbor populations of cancer cells equipped with different mutations. The result could have therapeutic ramifications for future patients, according to study...

skin cancer
issues in oncology

Novel BRAF Fusions Identified in 'Pan-Negative' Melanomas

A study by Sosman et al has identified two novel BRAF fusions in melanomas previously considered to be negative for molecular targets. In addition, these “pan-negative” melanomas were found to be sensitive to MEK inhibitors. According to the study, BRAF fusions define a new molecular...

issues in oncology
breast cancer

Higher Levels of HSET Linked to More Aggressive Breast Cancers and Worse Outcomes in African American Women

Data from a study by Ritu Aneja, PhD, Associate Professor in the Department of Biology at Georgia State University in Atlanta, and colleagues indicate that overexpression of the protein HSET is a valuable prognostic biomarker in African American women with breast cancer, but not in Caucasian...

prostate cancer
issues in oncology

Genetic Mutation May Play a Role in Worse Outcomes for Obese Prostate Cancer Patients

A study by researchers from Harvard School of Public Health, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Brigham and Women’s Hospital has found that overweight or obese men with prostate cancer whose tumors were positive for the TMPRSS2:ERG genetic mutation had more than a 50% increased risk of dying...

issues in oncology

Over-Regulation of Opioids Is Resulting in Untreated Cancer Pain for Millions of Patients Worldwide

The results from the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO)-led Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI) project show that due to a lack of access to essential opioids, more than 4 billion people—over half the world’s population—live in countries where regulatory barriers,...

skin cancer
issues in oncology

New Studies Provide Insight Into Melanoma Drug Resistance Pathways and Strategy for Obtaining Durable Responses

Approximately 50% of metastatic melanomas harbor the BRAF mutation, and although most of these melanomas respond dramatically to treatment with BRAF inhibitors, such as vemurafenib (Zelboraf) and dabrafenib (Tafinlar), nearly all develop resistance to the drugs within 7 to 8 months. While previous...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

New Mutation Found in the Estrogen Receptor May Cause Resistance to Breast Cancer Treatment

Most patients with estrogen receptor–positive metastatic breast cancer who initially respond to endocrine treatments will eventually develop resistance to the therapies. A study by Ido Wolf, MD, Head of the Oncology Department at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center in Israel, and colleagues...

gynecologic cancers
issues in oncology

One Dose of HPV 16/18 Vaccine Produces Durable Response Against New Infections

Results from the Costa Rica HPV16/18 Vaccine Trial (CVT) has found that 4-year efficacy against 12-month HPV16/18 persistent infection was similarly high among women who received one, two, or the recommended three doses of the bivalent HPV16/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine (Cervarix). The...

gynecologic cancers
issues in oncology

African American Women Are Less Likely to Benefit From HPV Vaccines for Cervical Cancer Prevention

Vaccines currently available to prevent the two most common strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV 16 and 18, responsible for about 70% of cervical cancers, may not be protective in African American women, according to a study by Cathrine Hoyo, PhD, MPH, Associate Professor in the Obstetrics...

issues in oncology

Most Common Tumors Are Driven by Two to Six DNA Mutations

A genetic analysis of 3,281 tumors from 12 cancer types, including breast, lung, endometrial, glioblastoma multiforme, ovarian, colon, and acute myeloid leukemia, has found 127 significantly mutated genes that appear to be involved in either cancer initiation or progression. Although the average...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

USPSTF Issues Final Recommendation Statement on Medications for the Risk Reduction of Primary Breast Cancer in Women

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) released today its final recommendation statement on medications to reduce the risk of primary breast cancer in women. Clinicians are recommended to prescribe risk-reducing medications, such as tamoxifen or raloxifene, for women who are at increased...

skin cancer
issues in oncology

NCI Scientists Use NanoString Technology to Identify Targets for Melanoma Immunotherapy

Researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have identified seven targets that could potentially be used to develop new immunotherapies for patients with metastatic melanoma. Their findings could increase the number of patients eligible for adoptive immunotherapy. The study was reported in ...

supportive care
issues in oncology

New Report Examines Trends in End-of-Life Care for Patients With Advanced Cancer

Although fewer Medicare patients with cancer died in the hospital in 2010 than in the years 2003–2007, aggressive treatment continues at the end of life, according to a new report from the Dartmouth Atlas Project. The findings also show that a significant number of patients were likely to...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

New Ultrasensitive Screening Method Can Detect Colon Cancer in Its Early Stages

A new ultrasensitive screening method that detects genetic variations that initiate colon cancer and can help in the detection of the cancer in its early stages could be used for noninvasive colon cancer screening, according to a study by Bettina Scholtka, PhD, Assistant Professor in the Department ...

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