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Your search for Jo Cavallo matches 161 pages

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breast cancer
issues in oncology

American Cancer Society Report Finds Rising Rates of Breast Cancer Among African American Women, Especially in Southern States

Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates of breast cancer than African American women, a new report by the American Cancer Society (ACS) finds that, in 2012, the rates converged. The incidence rates were significantly higher in black women than in white women in seven...

issues in oncology

Study Finds Tumor-Derived Exosomes May Predict Patients Likely to Develop Cancer Metastasis

Researchers investigating the role of exosomes, comprised of tumor-derived proteins, in the development of cancer metastasis have found that an “exosomal protein signature” could identify patients at risk for metastasis. The research also indicates that integrin expression profiles of...

gynecologic cancers
issues in oncology

How Physicians Communicate With Parents May Discourage HPV Vaccination of Adolescents

A nationwide online survey of 776 pediatricians and family physicians assessing the quality of their human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine recommendations to parents has found that a sizable minority of physicians—27%—said they do not strongly endorse HPV vaccination, and 26% and 39%...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

American Cancer Society Updates Its Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines for Average-Risk Women

After commissioning a systematic evidence review of the breast cancer screening literature to inform an update of its 2003 breast cancer screening interval guideline, the American Cancer Society (ACS) released new guidelines for women at average risk of breast cancer. The recommendations include...

leukemia
issues in oncology

Researchers Identify Dozens of Genetic Mutations Driving CLL and Their Evolution in Progression and Relapse

An analysis of whole-exome sequencing data from 538 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including 278 pretreatment samples collected from patients enrolled in a clinical trial, has identified 44 recurrently mutated genes and 11 recurrent somatic copy number variations. These findings...

issues in oncology

Study Finds Cancer Is Increasingly Common in Patients With HIV, Necessitating Targeted Cancer Prevention Efforts

The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has prolonged lives and resulted in cancer becoming increasingly common in this population, with a higher burden than the general population due to impaired immune function, including...

gynecologic cancers
gynecologic cancers
issues in oncology

Study Finds Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Practice May Generate Health Gains With Nominal Increases in Cost

Cytology-based screening has led to substantial declines in cervical cancer incidence and mortality since it was introduced in the 1940s. A population-based, cost-effective analysis investigating the benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of current cervical cancer screening practice, however, has ...

issues in oncology
survivorship
cost of care

AACR’s Cancer Progress Report Details Major Advances in Cancer and Rising Costs of Treatment

The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 2015 Cancer Progress Report highlighted the accelerated pace of the number of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved targeted therapies over the past 5 years, which reached 52 this year; the dramatic increase in the 5-year survival rate...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Study Finds Nearly Half of Testicular Cancer Risk Is Inherited

A large European study that combined both population-based and genomic techniques to investigate the heritability of testicular germ cell tumor has found that 48.9% of all the possible factors contributing to risk for the disease are inherited. Rather than being the result of one faulty gene,...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

Study Finds Many Women Experience Long-Term Psychosocial Consequences of False-Positive Screening Mammography

Although mammographic screening leads to reductions in breast cancer mortality, some women experience psychosocial side effects and do not benefit from screening, according to a study by Bolejko et al investigating the prevalence and predictors of the psychosocial consequences of false-positive...

multiple myeloma
issues in oncology

Study Identifies Gene Mutations Associated With Aggressive Multiple Myeloma

Using whole-exome sequencing on newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma, British researchers identified 15 genes that were significantly mutated in a subset of patients and mapped how these mutations related to long-term survival. They found 90% of patients with very aggressive disease who...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

Higher Coffee Intake Associated With Significantly Reduced Cancer Recurrence and Increased Survival in Patients With Late-Stage Colon Cancer

A large observational study investigating the effect of coffee consumption on advanced-stage colon cancer and survival has found that patients who drank four or more cups of coffee a day were 42% less likely to experience a recurrence than non-coffee drinkers and were 33% less likely to die from...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

Clinical Scoring System May Help Identify Appropriate Colorectal Cancer Screening Methods

Researchers investigating a risk index for colorectal cancer and advanced precancerous polyps among average-risk people have found that patients classified as low risk had fewer advanced adenomas than patients classified as high risk. Their findings suggest that those at low risk for colorectal...

issues in oncology
solid tumors
bladder cancer
issues in oncology

Study Identifies Genetic Mutations That Predict Response to Chemotherapy in Bladder Cancer

Although cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy before cystectomy is the standard of care for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, only between 25% and 50% of patients achieve a pathologic response. A study investigating biomarkers that can predict response to chemotherapy in patients with...

palliative care
issues in oncology
issues in oncology
palliative care

Study Shows Palliative Chemotherapy in Patients With End-Stage Cancer Did Not Improve Quality of Life and May Be Harmful

Although palliative chemotherapy is used to improve quality of life for patients with end-stage cancer, a study evaluating its use found that palliative chemotherapy did not improve quality of life near death for patients with a moderate or poor performance status and that it worsened quality of...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

Study Finds One-Third of Colorectal Cancers Diagnosed Before Age 35 Are Hereditary

Although the prevalence of genetic risk factors, such as Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis, has been studied in the general population of individuals with colorectal cancer, patients diagnosed as adolescents and young adults are not well represented in colorectal cancer studies. A...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

Study Finds Annual Low-Dose CT Screening Effective in Identifying Precancerous Lung Nodules

A large international prospective study investigating the safety and effectiveness of using annual low-dose computed tomography (CT) as a screening tool to monitor nonsolid lung nodules has found that CT was accurate in identifying nodules that were likely to become cancerous. The study also found...

issues in oncology
issues in oncology
cost of care

ASCO Publishes Conceptual Framework to Assess the Value of New Cancer Treatment Options

In a press conference today, ASCO detailed the contents of the initial version of a conceptual framework for assessing the value of new cancer treatment options based on the treatment’s clinical benefit, side effects, and cost. Other important measures, such as quality of life and...

issues in oncology
head and neck cancer
issues in oncology

HPV Serum Antibodies May Predict Survival and Disease Progression in Patients With HPV-Positive Oropharyngeal Cancer

A study by Dahlstrom et al investigating the usefulness of serum antibodies to human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 DNA antigens as predictors of survival for patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma has found that E1, NE2, and E6 antibody positivity were all strongly associated with improved overall and...

issues in oncology
breast cancer
issues in oncology

Study Finds ALK1 May Be a Therapeutic Target for Metastatic Breast Cancer

A study investigating the process involved in metastatic breast cancer has found that patients with high levels of the protein activin-like receptor kinase (ALK) 1 in the blood vessels of their tumors were more likely to develop metastatic disease than patients without endothelial expression of...

gynecologic cancers
issues in oncology

Investigators Identify Gene That Prevents Immune Response in Ovarian Cancer

Researchers have identified a gene in dendritic cells that disables an effective immune response against ovarian cancer tumors. In preclinical studies, the researchers found that silencing this gene, XBP1, in dendritic cells restores their function and enhances T-cell antitumor immunity. XBP1 is...

issues in oncology
prostate cancer

Study Finds Prostate Cancer Survivors Who Maintained a Western Diet Had an Increased Risk of Death

A large study evaluating the relationship of dietary patterns with prostate cancer–specific and all-cause mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer has found that the men who ate a Western-style diet of foods rich in processed meats, red meats, and high-fat dairy...

issues in oncology

ASCO 2015: African Americans Prone to Display Negative Perceptions of Cancer-Related Clinical Trials

African American patients have a disproportionately high rate of cancer and yet are less likely than Caucasian patients to participate in oncologic clinical trials that can significantly improve quality of life. Researchers from Fox Chase Cancer Center and Temple University explored the differences ...

issues in oncology
issues in oncology

ASCO Releases Proposal for Payment Reform to Support Higher-Quality, More Affordable Cancer Care

Expanding on the Consolidated Payments for Oncology Care (CPOC) payment model circulated last year to improve the quality and affordability of care for patients with cancer, ASCO’s new Patient-Centered Oncology Payment: Payment Reform to Support Higher Quality, More Affordable Cancer Care...

breast cancer
gynecologic cancers
colorectal cancer
gynecologic cancers
prostate cancer
issues in oncology

American College of Physicians Offers Advice on High-Value Screening in Five Cancers

To provide guidance on high-value cancer care screening strategies, the American College of Physicians (ACP) recently reviewed clinical guidelines issued by various medical organizations for screening strategies in five common cancers for asymptomatic, average-risk adults. The five cancers focused...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

Breast Density Should Not Be the Only Criterion for Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening

A large prospective study investigating the association between dense breast tissue and the risk for interval breast cancer has found that breast density alone should not be the sole criterion for recommending supplemental breast imaging, because not all women with dense breasts have high interval...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

New Study Finds Racial Differences in Survival Among Men With Breast Cancer

A study by Sineshaw et al has found that black men with early-stage breast cancer who were younger than age 65 had a 76% higher risk of death than whites. However, the disparity was significantly reduced after adjusting for differences in insurance and income, suggesting the importance of...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

Long-Term Use of Statins May Reduce Risk of Lung Cancer Death

A large population-based British study of newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer has found that those who had prolonged use of statins, especially simvastatin, had a 19% reduction in lung cancer deaths. Among all patients, those who used statins in the year before their lung cancer diagnosis had ...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Clarifies Mammography Recommendations for Women in Their 40s

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has issued its updated draft recommendation statement on mammography screening guidelines. The revised guidelines still recommend that women aged 50 to 74 get mammography screening for breast cancer every 2 years and now states that the decision to...

head and neck cancer
issues in oncology

Study Finds Large Disparities in Survival Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

A large, diverse study of 16,827 adolescents and young adults with differentiated thyroid cancer has found that African Americans and Hispanics were six times and three times more likely, respectively, to die of their cancer than Caucasians. Residing in low-socioeconomic neighborhoods, insurance...

issues in oncology
issues in oncology

Cancer Experts Find Too Many People Are Being Screened, Diagnosed, and Treated for Disease

A recent commentary published in Annals of Internal Medicine discusses the paradoxical finding that most patients are at below-average risk of disease and can expect to experience less-than-average benefits from a treatment. Yet, argue Vickers et al, too many people are being screened, diagnosed,...

issues in oncology

Genome-Wide CRISPR Screen Provides Better Understanding of Tumor Evolution and Metastasis

Scientists from the Broad Institute and the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT used CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technology to “knock out,” or turn off, all genes across the genome systematically in a mouse model of non–small cell lung cancer cells and then tested...

issues in oncology
legislation
issues in oncology

Study Finds Websites That Market Personalized Cancer Care Services Overemphasize Benefits

A recent analysis of 55 Internet websites marketing a broad range of tests and services that promise the ability to personalize cancer treatment has found that the websites often overemphasize their purported benefits and downplay their limitations. In addition, the study results show that the...

skin cancer
issues in oncology

NRAS Mutations in Advanced Melanoma Correlate With Increased Benefit From Immunotherapies

Researchers investigating whether tumor genotype correlates with benefit from immune therapy in melanoma has found that patients whose tumors had NRAS mutations had better response to immunotherapy and better outcomes than patients whose tumors had other genetic subtypes. The results suggest that...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

Study Finds Immunohistochemistry Is More Effective Than FISH in Detecting EML4-ALK Rearrangments in Lung Cancer

A retrospective study by Pekar-Zlotin et al investigating fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detecting EML4-ALK rearrangement in patients with lung cancer has found that FISH may miss a significant number of patients who tested positive with...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Scientists Identify Genetic Variations Linked to Treatment-Related Hearing Loss in Young Patients With Cancer

Using a genome-wide associated study approach, researchers have identified inherited genetic variations in the ACYP2 gene that were linked to as much as a fourfold greater risk of rapid hearing loss in young patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. The study...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

Study Finds Metformin May Reduce Lung Cancer Risk Among Diabetic Nonsmokers

A large retrospective cohort study of diabetic patients taking metformin, a first-line treatment for type II diabetes, has found that while metformin use was not associated with lower lung cancer risk overall, the risk was 43% lower among diabetic patients who had never smoked. In addition, the...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

Study Finds Fear of Cancer Can Be Either a Facilitator or Deterrent to Getting Colorectal Cancer Screenings

People who worry a lot about cancer are more likely to want to get screened for colon cancer—perhaps due to a desire for reassurance—but having a more visceral negative response to thinking about cancer acted as a deterrent to actually getting screened, according to a British study by...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

Study Finds Many Women Lack Understanding of Their Breast Cancer, Especially Minority Patients

A population-based study of women who had undergone surgery for breast cancer has found that many lacked understanding of the basic characteristics of their disease, including stage, grade, and tumor characteristics. Minority patients were less likely than white patients to have the correct...

issues in oncology

ASCO Announces Progress in the Development of CancerLinQ, With the First Version Due in Late 2015

The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) announced today that it will use SAP HANA®, a data management and application platform, in the development of CancerLinQ, the Society’s health information technology platform that will harness Big Data to deliver high-quality care to...

issues in oncology

Study Finds Whole-Genome Sequencing Is Successful in Identifying Patients’ Risk for Inherited Cancers

After performing whole-genome sequencing on patients found to have BRCA1or BRCA2 mutations as well as on those that were not carriers of either mutation, researchers found cancer risk–related potentially pathogenic variants in those without BRCA mutations. While the results highlight the ...

issues in oncology

Scientists Discover the Role of Gene Mutations Involved in 75% of Glioblastomas and Melanomas

After initiating several biophysical computational studies, researchers have identified mutations that destabilize a DNA structure that turns a gene “off.” They found that these mutations occur at four specific sites in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter in over ...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

Racial Disparities in Colon Cancer Survival Linked to Advanced Disease and Comorbidities at Diagnosis

Racial disparities in colon cancer survival rates may be explained by differences in the health of the patients at diagnosis—both in the stage of the cancer and comorbid conditions—rather than by differences in subsequent treatment, a new study has found. Focusing efforts on prevention...

issues in oncology

Bisphosphonates May Block the Development of HER-Driven Tumors, Preventing Breast, Lung, and Colon Cancers

Two studies have found that bisphosphonates may be effective in preventing certain cancers—including lung, breast, and colon—by blocking abnormal growth signals passed through HER family receptors. The studies suggest that bisphosphonates, the most commonly prescribed medications for...

leukemia
issues in oncology

Exposure to Hookah Smoke Doubles Benzene Uptake, Potentially Increasing Risk for Leukemia

Findings from a new study show that hookah smokers and nonsmokers exposed to hookah (or waterpipe) secondhand tobacco smoke at social events in hookah lounges and in private homes had significant increases in uptake of benzene, a leukemogen that causes lymphohematopoietic cancers, especially acute...

health-care policy
issues in oncology

ASCO Calls for Major Medicaid Reform to Improve Quality Cancer Care for Low-Income Americans

ASCO issued its new Policy Statement on Medicaid Reform yesterday, which calls for major changes to the program to ensure access to high-quality cancer care for all low-income individuals. The Society’s recommendations call for Medicaid expansion in all 50 states to close coverage gaps,...

supportive care
issues in oncology
issues in oncology
palliative care

End-of-Life Discussions Are Associated With Longer Survival and Higher Quality of Life

A review of advance care planning and end-of-life communication practices among physicians by the American College of Physicians has found that implementing early discussions about goals of care with seriously ill patients results in better quality of life, reduced use of life-sustaining treatments ...

supportive care
issues in oncology

Survey Finds High Rates of Burnout Among Palliative Care Physicians, With Over 50% Predicted to Leave the Field in 10 Years

Physician burnout in palliative care is higher—over 62%—than the burnout rate reported in medical oncology—45%—according to a large survey of over 1,200 hospice and palliative care clinicians. The factors contributing to professional burnout severity included younger age,...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

Personalized Genetic Risk Assessment Does Not Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening in an Average-Risk Population

A large prospective, randomized, controlled trial investigating whether individualized genetic and environmental risk assessment of colorectal cancer susceptibility improves adherence to screening in average-risk persons, has found that the information was not enough to persuade nonadherent...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

National Lung Screening Trial Analysis Finds Low-Dose CT Screening Identifies More Lung Cancers in Older vs Younger Participants

Findings from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) showed that screening high-risk individuals (smoking history of ≥ 30 pack-years) aged 55 to 74 with low-dose computed tomography (CT) vs chest radiography reduced lung cancer mortality. Following the study results, the U.S. Preventive...

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