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cns cancers
solid tumors

Retroviral Replicating Vector That Delivers Cytosine Deaminase to Cancer Cells Active in Recurrent Glioblastoma

A phase I study by Cloughesy et al published in Science Translational Medicine investigating the effectiveness of vocimagene amiretrorepvec (Toca 511), an experimental nonlytic, retroviral replicating vector that delivers cytosine deaminase to cancer cells, and an investigational...

cns cancers

Play-Based Procedural Preparation May Aid Children Undergoing Cranial Radiation Therapy

Play-based procedural preparation not only helps children cope with the stress and anxiety of radiation therapy, but can also help reduce the amount of sedation used and cut costs, according to a study from the Child Life Program at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. The study was...

cns cancers

Clinically Relevant Mutations Identified Through Sequencing of Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients With CNS Cancers

Next-generation sequencing identified clinically relevant somatic alterations in cancer-associated genes in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with central nervous system (CNS) cancers, according to a report by Pentsova et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Somatic Alterations The study...

cns cancers

Study Explores Differential Localization of Glioblastoma Subtypes and Pathogenesis

Researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine have demonstrated that distinct types of glioblastoma tend to develop in different regions of the brain. This finding provides an explanation for how the same cancer-causing mutation can give rise to different types of brain...

cns cancers

KIR3DL1 and HLA-B Allele Combinations May Impact Response to Treatment in Neuroblastoma

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Forlenza et al found that noninteracting KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtypes were associated with better response to anti-GD2 antibody treatment in neuroblastoma. Study Details Treatment of neuroblastoma with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (eg, the...

cns cancers

Improved Overall Survival With Addition of Chemotherapy to Radiation in Low-Grade Glioma

The addition of chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine to radiotherapy significantly prolonged overall survival in patients with low-grade glioma, according to the final results of the phase III RTOG 9802 trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Buckner et al. A...

cns cancers

Louis Burt Nabors, MD, on Primary and Recurrent Gliomas: Notable Developments in Management

Louis Burt Nabors, MD, of the University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center, discusses improvements in the 2016 NCCN Guidelines for glioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and glioblastoma.

cns cancers

Glioblastoma Multiforme With Mismatch Repair Deficiency May Be Target for Immune Checkpoint Inhibition

Glioblastoma multiforme resulting from germline biallelic mismatch repair deficiency was characterized by hypermutation and elevated neoantigen load—characteristics associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in other settings—according to a study reported in the Journal of ...

cns cancers

Finnish Study Identifies Increased Cancer Risks in Patients With Neurofibromatosis Type 1

In a Finnish study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Uusitalo et al found that patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) were at increased risk of other cancers in addition to nervous system disease. The study included data from a population-based series of patients with...

cns cancers

Alisertib Shows Activity With Irinotecan/Temozolomide in Relapsed or Refractory Neuroblastoma

The oral Aurora A kinase inhibitor alisertib was active in combination with irinotecan/temozolomide in patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma, in a phase I dose-escalation trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by DuBois et al. The maximum tolerated dose of alisertib was 60...

cns cancers

Combination Therapy May Be Better Than Radiotherapy Alone to Treat Aggressive Brain Cancer, According to Early Study

Radiotherapy effectively damages brain tumors, but the cancer cells can repair themselves in order to live on. Now, researchers at Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University have tested a strategy that combines radiotherapy with a drug that shuts down the ability of tumor to mend...

cns cancers

Hyperthermic Laser Surgery Disrupts Blood-Brain-Barrier in Glioblastoma, Opening Path for Chemotherapy

Neurosurgeons at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis used hyperthermic laser ablation to shrink tumors in patients with recurrent glioblastoma and noted a temporary disruption of the blood-brain barrier, thereby enabling them to deliver chemotherapy to the peritumoral region....

cns cancers

Two Forms of Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases Are Equally Effective

While two advanced radiosurgery approaches—Gamma Knife and RapidArc—offer different strengths, they are equally effective at eradicating cancer in the brain, say researchers at Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson. Their study, published by Liu et al in Frontiers in Oncology,...

cns cancers

Malignant Brain Tumors Most Common Cause of Cancer Deaths in Adolescents and Young Adults

A new report published by Ostrom et al in the journal Neuro-Oncology sponsored by the American Brain Tumor Association (ABTA) found that malignant brain tumors are the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 39, and the most common cancer occurring...

cns cancers

Single-Center Study Evaluates Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Medulloblastoma

In a phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology by Yock et al, use of proton radiotherapy for pediatric medulloblastoma was associated with acceptable long-term toxic effects and good survival outcomes. Study Details In the study, 59 patients aged 3 to 21 years were treated at...

survivorship
cns cancers
issues in oncology

Increased Risk of Severe Neurocognitive Impairment in Adult Survivors of Pediatric CNS Tumors

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Brinkman et al, a study in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort showed that adult survivors of pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors are at increased risk of severe neurocognitive impairment. Study Details The study involved 224 survivors of CNS...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Abnormal Fused Gene Is a Triple Threat in Driving Pediatric Brain Tumors

Oncology researchers have discovered that an abnormal fused gene that drives pediatric brain tumors poses a triple threat, operating simultaneously through three distinct biologic mechanisms—the first such example in cancer biology. The study was published by Bandopadhayay et al in Nature...

survivorship
cns cancers

Gregory T. Armstrong, MD, MSCE, on Late Mortality in Childhood Cancer Survivors

Gregory T. Armstrong, MD, MSCE, of St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, discusses the findings of a landmark survivorship study (Abstract LBA2).

cns cancers

Jan C. Buckner, MD, on Whole-Brain Radiation and Radiosurgery in Patients With Brain Metastases

Jan C. Buckner, MD, of the Mayo Clinic discusses adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy and the need for initial treatment with radiosurgery and close monitoring to preserve cognitive function in patients with brain metastases (Abstract LBA4).

solid tumors
cns cancers

Priscilla K. Brastianos, MD, on Genetic Screening of Brain Metastases

Priscilla K. Brastianos, MD, of Massachusetts General Hospital, discusses genomic characterization of brain metastases and paired primary tumors, which could reveal potential therapeutic targets (Abstract 2905).

cns cancers
gastroesophageal cancer

Anita Mahajan, MD, on Radiotherapy Advances in the CNS and Aerodigestive Tract

Anita Mahajan, MD, of MD Anderson Cancer Center, summarizes results from three clinical trials on radiation therapy for ependymoma, locally advanced thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and meningioma (Abstracts 31, 1, 7).

cns cancers

2016 GI Symposium: Everolimus Slows Growth of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Researchers report the results of a new analysis from a phase III trial of patients with neuroendocrine tumors that begin in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract or have an unknown origin. Compared to placebo, everolimus (Afinitor) was associated with a 6- to 8-month longer time period before the cancer ...

cns cancers

2016 GI Symposium: New Targeted Hormone-Radiation Treatment Slows Growth of Midgut Neuroendocrine Tumors

Early results from the NETTER-1 phase III study of patients with previously treated, advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors show that a novel therapy, lutetium Lu-177 dotatate (Lutathera), may substantially slow tumor growth. Patients treated with the experimental drug had a 79% lower risk ...

solid tumors
lung cancer
cns cancers

Everolimus Improves Progression-Free Survival in Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung or Gastrointestinal Tract

In a phase III RADIANT-4 trial reported in The Lancet, Yao et al found that everolimus (Afinitor) and supportive care significantly prolonged progression-free survival vs placebo and supportive care in patients with advanced nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors of the lung or gastrointestinal tract. ...

cns cancers

MD Anderson Receives $5 Million Grant for Research in Glioblastoma

The Broach Foundation for Brain Cancer Research has made a $5 million commitment to support glioblastoma multiforme research at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. James and Jamie Broach established the Broach Foundation in 2011, just months after Mr. Broach was diagnosed...

cns cancers

A Candidly Humorous Approach to the Cancer Journey

BOOKMARK Title: Shrinkage: Manhood, Marriage, and the Tumor That Tried to Kill MeAuthor: Bryan BishopPublisher: Thomas Dunne BooksPublication date: April 29, 2014Price: $25.99; hardcover, 336 pages   At 30 years old, Bryan Bishop was having the time of his life. Known to millions of radio fans as...

cns cancers

Dr. Howard Fine Named Founding Director of the Brain Tumor Center at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center

Howard A. Fine, MD, has been appointed to lead the newly established neuro-oncology program at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, effective February 2. He will serve as Director of the Brain Tumor Center and Associate Director for Translational Research in the Sandra and...

issues in oncology
cns cancers

DNA Repair Enzyme Identified as a Potential Brain Cancer Drug Target

Rapidly dividing cells rely on an enzyme called Dicer to help them repair the DNA damage that occurs as they make mistakes in copying their genetic material over and over for new cells. Researchers have built on the discovery of Dicer’s role in fixing DNA damage to uncover a new potential...

cns cancers

Prognostic Factors in Men With Brain Metastases From Germ Cell Tumors

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Feldman et al, of the Global Germ Cell Cancer Group, identified prognostic factors in men with brain metastases from germ cell cancer at initial diagnosis or relapse. Overall survival was better in patients with metastases at diagnosis, a greater...

lung cancer
cns cancers

Prognostic Factors Identified in Patients With ALK‑Rearranged NSCLC and Brain Metastasis

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Johung and colleagues identified factors that distinguished survival rates among patients with ALK-rearranged non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and brain metastasis. The study included 90 patients from six institutions. Of them, 84...

cns cancers

Experimental Drug Shown to Prevent Neuroblastoma in Preclinical Study

Australian scientists have identified a critical molecular “feedback loop” that helps initiate and drive neuroblastoma, a cancer of the nervous system in children that is triggered in embryonal nerve cells. This feedback loop massively accelerates cancer development. The research team...

cns cancers

Preclinical Study Finds Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas With CRAF Fusions May Require Differential and Combinatorial Targeted Therapies

Pediatric low-grade gliomas are the most common type of brain tumor diagnosed in children, and represent a heterogeneous group of tumors, which are poorly classified based on histology and location, according to Payal Jain, a graduate student at the University of Pennsylvania, and lead author of a...

cns cancers
survivorship

Chemotherapy-Induced Hearing Loss Affects Cognition in Pediatric Brain Tumor Survivors

More children are surviving malignant brain tumors than in the past, thanks to the use of intense treatments using platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin and high-dose carboplatin). Unfortunately, the therapy has a known side effect of permanent hearing loss, resulting from damage to the inner ear. ...

cns cancers
supportive care

Telotristat Etiprate Shows Clinical Benefit in Treating Carcinoid Syndrome in Cancer Patients When Added to Standard of Care

Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, Inc's telotristat etiprate was shown to have clinical benefit in treating carcinoid syndrome in cancer patients not adequately controlled by long-acting somatostatin analog therapy, the current standard of care, according to data from the phase III TELESTAR study presented...

cns cancers
cns cancers

ASTRO 2015: Pediatric Patients With Ependymoma Have Favorable Outcomes With Immediate Postsurgical Radiation Therapy

Outcomes for pediatric patients as young as 12 months old with ependymoma who are treated with immediate postoperative radiation therapy are favorable and consistent, based upon tumor surgical resection and tumor grade, according to research presented by Merchant et al (Abstract 1) on October...

cns cancers

ASTRO 2015: Patients With Intermediate-Risk Meningiomas Who Receive Postoperative Radiotherapy Have a 96% 3-Year Progression-Free Survival

Patients with intermediate meningiomas treated with radiation therapy after surgery experienced a 96% 3-year progression-free survival rate and had minimal adverse events, according to research presented by Rogers et al October 21, 2015, at the American Society for Radiation Oncology’s...

cns cancers

Targeted Chemotherapy Shows Early Signs of Slowing Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth With Less Toxicity in Preclinical Models

Surviving neuroblastoma as a child can come with just as many challenges as the cancer itself, mainly because of the toxic effects of chemotherapy. But a team of surgeons is in the nascent stages of developing a more targeted, less toxic method of treating neuroblastoma patients with chemotherapy....

cns cancers

No Difference in Outcomes With Short-Course vs Longer-Course Radiotherapy in Elderly or Frail Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

In a noninferiority phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Roa et al found no difference in overall survival, progression-free survival, or quality of life between short-course and longer-course radiotherapy in elderly or frail patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma...

cns cancers

FDA Approves Expanded Indication for Medical Device to Treat Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved an expanded indication for the Optune tumor treating fields device to treat patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. It is given along with the chemotherapy drug temozolomide following standard treatments that include...

solid tumors
lung cancer
cns cancers

ECC 2015: Lung and Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors and Results From the RADIANT-4 Trial

An international team of researchers has shown that the use of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus can delay tumor growth among both gastrointestinal and lung neuroendocrine tumors. This is particularly important for patients with lung tumors, the researchers say, because there is currently no approved...

cns cancers
solid tumors

ECC 2015: Advanced Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors and Results From the NETTER-1 Trial

Results from a multicenter randomized international trial of an innovative treatment show a marked improvement in the length of time patients with midgut neuroendocrine tumors experience progression-free survival, researchers reported at the 2015 European Cancer Congressin Vienna, Austria, on...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

ECC 2015: Genetic Screening of Brain Metastases Could Reveal New Targets for Treatment

Unraveling the genetic sequences of cancer that has spread to the brain could offer unexpected targets for effective treatment, according to new research (Abstract 2905) presented at the 2015 European Cancer Congress in Vienna, Austria, and published simultaneously by Brastianos et al in...

cns cancers

Long-Term Infusion of Immunotherapy May Reduce Pain in Children With High-Risk Neuroblastoma

Changing the infusion delivery method of the monoclonal antibody ch14.18/CHO (dinutuximab-beta, the European counterpart of dinutuximab [Unituxin]) in combination with interleukin-2 and oral 13-cis-retinoic acid from short-term infusion to long-term infusion in the treatment of children with...

cns cancers

Combination of Chemotherapy and T-Cell Immunotherapy May Provide Novel Treatment Strategy for Glioblastoma

A preclinical study has found that a combination of decitabine and T-cell immunotherapy demonstrated antitumor activity against glioblastomas in mouse models and was about 50% effective at curing the disease. The results, reported by Everson et al in Neuro-Oncology, show an innovative,...

cns cancers

Complete Resection of High-Grade Gliomas Yields Better Survival in Children, Especially Girls

For children with aggressive brain cancers called high-grade gliomas, the chances of survival are improved when surgery is successful in eliminating all visible cancer, according to a report published by McCrea et al in Neurosurgery. In addition to showing better survival with gross total...

cns cancers

Study Reveals Effects of Chemoradiation in Brains of Glioblastoma Patients

A study from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center researchers—the first to examine the effects of combined radiation and chemotherapy on the healthy brain tissue of glioblastoma patients—revealed not only specific structural changes within patients’ brains, but also...

cns cancers
issues in oncology

Medullablastomas Can Be Classified Noninvasively at Diagnosis

Medulloblastoma, the most commonly occurring malignant brain tumor in children, can be classified into four subgroups, each with a different risk profile requiring subgroup-specific therapy. Currently, subgroup determination is done after surgical removal of the tumor. Investigators at...

cns cancers
gynecologic cancer
colorectal cancer
leukemia
lymphoma
skin cancer
gynecologic cancer
issues in oncology
issues in oncology
issues in oncology

Noninvasive Prenatal Testing May Also Detect Some Maternal Cancers

A study published by Bianchi et al in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) showed that genetic test results revealed by noninvasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities may detect underlying conditions in the mother, including cancer. The study reports on a case...

cns cancers

FDA Grants Orphan Drug Designation to Anti‑Tropomyosin Drug for Neuroblastoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Orphan Drug designation to Novogen Limited’s chemotherapy candidate drug Anisina for neuroblastoma. Anisina is a small molecule belonging to a family of compounds called anti-tropomyosins. It has been designed to inhibit Tpm3.1, a...

issues in oncology
cns cancers

Early Study Suggests Which Glioblastoma Patients May Benefit From Dasatinib

Clinicians testing the drug dasatinib (Sprycel), approved for several blood cancers, had hoped it would slow the aggressive growth of the deadly brain cancer glioblastoma; however, clinical trials to date have not found any benefit. Researchers at Mayo Clinic, who conducted one of those clinical...

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