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Thoracic 2017: Combination of Radiation and Immune Checkpoint Therapy Holds Potential for Lung Cancer

Key Points

  • Median progression-free survival was 3.8 months, and median overall survival was 9.2 months following initiation of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. These cancer control rates are similar to other prospective studies that used immune checkpoint inhibitors to treat NSCLC.
  • Three patients (10%) experienced severe possible treatment-related toxicity, including one grade 5 toxicity 2 weeks following radiation treatment and two cases of grade 3 pneumonitis at 2 and 4 months post radiation treatment, respectively.
  • None of the patients who received radiotherapy prior to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy experienced severe treatment-related toxicity as a result of radiation therapy.

An emerging approach for cancer treatment seeks to combine radiation therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors to more effectively control tumors in the chest with an acceptable risk of severe treatment-related side effects. About 10% of patients in a retrospective analysis of metastatic lung cancer experienced severe toxicity as a result of the combination therapy. Findings were presented by Ahmed et al at the 2017 Multidisciplinary Thoracic Cancers Symposium (Plenary Abstract 10).

Cancer cells produce proteins that are designed to stop the body's natural immune response to overtake the disease. One type of targeted therapy uses immune checkpoint inhibitors to stop cancer growth by blocking these proteins, which allows the immune system to remain active and attack malignant cells more successfully. A potential downside to this form of immunotherapy, however, is that the immune system may also target healthy cells and cause serious treatment-related side effects for some patients. Moreover, research on the potential of immune checkpoint inhibitors used in conjunction with traditional therapies, such as thoracic radiation therapy, is still relatively new.

“In previous analyses, our team found that a combination of radiation therapy and anti–PD-1 [programmed cell death protein 1] therapy was safe and effective in treating melanoma-related brain metastases,” said Kamran A. Ahmed, MD, lead author of the study and a resident in radiation oncology at the Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Florida. “The current findings show potential for the tolerability and efficacy of this combined approach for treating thoracic tumors, as well.”

Study Details

Findings are based on a retrospective analysis of 29 metastatic lung cancer patients treated with thoracic radiotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors at a single institution between February 2012 and May 2016. Patients received radiotherapy within the 6 months preceding or 6 months following initiation of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, given as anti–PD-1 therapy or anti–programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy alone or in combination with anti–CTLA-4 therapy. Seventeen patients (59%) received a single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitor, and 12 patients received combination immune checkpoint inhibitors. All patients received immune checkpoint inhibitors until their disease progressed.

The median patient age at the time of study enrollment was 64 years, and 55% of patients were female. Most patients presented with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, 79%) and ECOG 1 performance status (69%). The number of metastatic sites ranged from two to eight, with a median of three sites.

The primary outcome was treatment-related toxicity, namely pneumonitis and other types of lung damage; occurrence and severity were assessed qualitatively from patients' clinical records. Median follow-up was 6.6 months following treatment. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine estimates of progression-free survival and overall survival from the date that immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy began.

Roughly half of the patients (52%) received thoracic radiotherapy concurrent with or after immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. The other 14 patients were administered radiation 2 weeks to 5.5 months before they began immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, with a median interval of 2.2 months between radiotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Total radiation doses ranged from 10 to 70 Gy, delivered in 1 to 35 fractions.

Major Findings

For the patients in this study, median progression-free survival was 3.8 months, and median overall suvival was 9.2 months following initiation of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. These cancer control rates are similar to other prospective studies that used immune checkpoint inhibitors to treat NSCLC.

Three patients (10%) experienced severe possible treatment-related toxicity, including 1 grade 5 toxicity at 2 weeks following radiation treatment and 2 cases of grade 3 pneumonitis at 2 and 4 months post radiation treatment, respectively. For all three of these patients, thoracic radiotherapy was administered following immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. None of the patients who received radiotherapy prior to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy experienced severe treatment-related toxicity as a result of radiation therapy.

Two additional cases of pneumonitis (one grade 2 and one grade 3) were noted following anti–PD-1 therapy but before radiation treatments began. Both of these patients subsequently received thoracic radiotherapy without any additional pulmonary toxicity.

“Our results suggest that a treatment regimen combining thoracic radiation therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors may carry a modest risk of severe side effects,” said Dr. Ahmed. “These findings should be evaluated further within the context of prospective clinical trials, particularly those that examine the risk of lung toxicity and the potential opportunity to improve outcomes with this emerging form of combination therapy.”

The content in this post has not been reviewed by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Inc. (ASCO®) and does not necessarily reflect the ideas and opinions of ASCO®.


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