SIDEBAR: Examples of Advances Attributed to Cooperative Group Trials

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  • Produced long-term survival and cures in the majority of pediatric cancer cases

  • Showed that breast-conserving lumpectomy is often a better surgical option than radical mastectomy, developed optimal adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, and demonstrated the preventive benefits of tamoxifen

  • Developed paclitaxel as a premier treatment of ovarian cancer and metastatic non–small-cell lung cancer

  • Showed 12 months of fluorouracil (5-FU)/levamisole (Ergamisol) chemotherapy decreased mortality in colon cancer by 33%, and in a follow-up study, demonstrated that the same benefit could be realized by 6 months of 5FU/leucovorin

  • Established combined chemotherapy and radiation as the most effective treatment of advanced cervical cancer