RESEARCHERS FUNDED by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have completed a detailed genomic analysis, known as the Pan-Cancer Atlas, on a data set of molecular and clinical information from over 10,000 tumors representing 33 types of cancer.
The Pan-Cancer Atlas, published as a collection of 27 papers across a suite of Cell journals, sums up the work accomplished by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The program, with over $300 million in total funding, involved upward of 150 researchers at more than 2 dozen institutions across North America.
More on the Pan-Cancer Atlas Findings
THE PROJECT focused not only on cancer genome sequencing, but also on different types of data analyses, such as investigating gene- and protein-expression profiles and associating them with clinical and imaging data.
The Pan-Cancer Atlas is divided into three main categories, each anchored by a summary paper that recaps the core findings for the topic. The main topics include cell of origin, oncogenic processes, and oncogenic pathways. Multiple companion papers report in-depth explorations of individual topics within these categories.
In the first summary paper, the authors summarize the findings from a set of analyses that used a technique called molecular clustering, which groups tumors by parameters such as genes being expressed, abnormality of chromosome numbers in tumor cells, and DNA modifications. The paper’s findings suggest that tumor types cluster by their possible cells of origin, a result that adds to our understanding of how tumor tissue of origin influences a cancer’s features and could lead to more specific treatments for various cancer types.
The second summary paper presents a broad view of the TCGA findings on the processes that lead to cancer development and progression. Specifically, the authors note that the findings identified three critical oncogenic processes: mutations, both germline and somatic; the influence of the tumor’s underlying genome and epigenome on gene and protein expression; and the interplay of tumor and immune cells. These findings will help prioritize the development of new treatments and immunotherapies for a wide range of cancers.
The final summary paper details TCGA investigations on the genomic alterations in the signaling pathways that control cell-cycle progression, cell death, and cell growth, revealing the similarities and differences in these processes across a range of cancers. Their findings reveal new patterns of cancer’s potential vulnerabilities, which will aid in the development of combination therapies and personalized medicine.
The 27 papers of the Pan-Cancer Atlas are available through a portal on cell.com.1 Additionally, as the decade-long TCGA effort wraps up, there will be a 3-day symposium in Washington, DC, September 27–29, 2018, which will discuss the future of large-scale cancer studies, with a session focusing on the Pan-Cancer Atlas. The meeting will feature the latest advances on the genomic architecture of cancer and showcase recent progress toward therapeutic targeting. ■
1. Welcome to the Pan-Cancer Atlas. Available at http://www.cell.com/pb-assets/ consortium/PanCancerAtlas/PanCani3/ index.html. Accessed April 11, 2018.