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skin cancer

Does Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk Change With Immunosuppression?

Immunosuppressed patients seem to have an increased risk of poor outcomes with multiple squamous cell carcinomas compared with those who are immunocompetent. Jessica L. Gonzalez, MD, of Tufts Medical Center in Boston, and colleagues published the results of a single-center case-control study...

multiple myeloma

DNA Rearrangement May Predict Treatment Resistance and Poor Outcomes in Multiple Myeloma

A certain type of DNA marker may predict poor outcomes in multiple myeloma, researchers at Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University have found. The marker is a particular rearrangement of chromosomes that is rarely tested for but may indicate resistance to immunomodulatory drugs such as...

breast cancer
cost of care

Does Oncotype DX–Guided Treatment Reduce Initial Costs of Breast Cancer Care?

A new study suggests that Oncotype DX–guided treatment could reduce the cost for the first year of breast cancer care in the United States by about $50 million (about 2% of the overall costs in the first year). These findings were published by Mariotto et al in the Journal of the...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

Combined Crowd Innovation and AI in Producing Algorithms for Radiotherapy Targeting

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Mak et al found that a crowd innovation contest produced automated artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms “that replicated the skills of a highly trained physician” in segmenting lung tumors for radiotherapy targeting. The investigators also noted...

breast cancer

Low-Dose Tamoxifen vs Placebo in Preventing Local and Contralateral Recurrence in Breast Intraepithelial Neoplasia

In an Italian phase III study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, DeCensi et al found that tamoxifen at 5 mg/d vs placebo for 3 years reduced the risk of recurrence of breast intraepithelial neoplasia and was associated with limited toxicity. As noted by the investigators,...

solid tumors

SABR-COMET: Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy vs Standard Palliative Treatment in Oligometastatic Cancers

Results of the phase II SABR-COMET trial reported by Palma et al in The Lancet indicate that stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) was associated with improved survival vs standard palliative treatment in patients with oligometastatic cancers, although it was also associated with...

colorectal cancer
issues in oncology

Colonoscopy Polyp Detection Rates and Endoscopist Characteristics

Previous research has suggested that specific factors about the doctor performing colonoscopy—for example, a gastroenterologist vs a surgeon, female vs male—were associated with different rates of detection of precancerous polyps. However, a Cleveland Clinic–led research team...

gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer

Perioperative Therapy With FLOT vs ECF/ECX in Locally Advanced Gastric Adenocarcinoma

In the German phase II/III FLOT4 trial reported in The Lancet, Al-Batran et al found that perioperative therapy with the docetaxel-based triplet FLOT (fluorouracil [5-FU]/leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel) was associated with improved overall survival vs ECF/ECX (epirubicin and cisplatin plus...

head and neck cancer
pain management

Doxepin or Diphenhydramine/Lidocaine/Antacid Mouthwash for Radiotherapy-Related Oral Mucositis Pain

In the phase III Alliance A221304 trial reported in JAMA, Sio et al found that doxepin mouthwash and diphenhydramine/lidocaine/antacid mouthwash reduced oral mucositis pain for the first 4 hours after administration in patients with oral mucositis pain from head and neck radiotherapy, but the...

colorectal cancer

SUNSHINE Trial: High-Dose Vitamin D May Benefit Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

Results of a small clinical trial suggest that supplementing chemotherapy with high doses of vitamin D may benefit patients with metastatic colorectal cancer by delaying progression of the disease. These findings were published by Ng et al in JAMA. Initial trial findings were reported at the 2017...

skin cancer

Does Intake of Dietary Fat Increase Risk of Skin Cancer?

Dietary intake of fat is associated with several types of cancer, but few studies have explored the link between fat intake and the risk of skin cancer. In a study published by Park et al in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, researchers examined the relationship between fat intake...

kidney cancer
immunotherapy

FDA Approves Pembrolizumab Plus Axitinib for First-Line Treatment of Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

On April 19, 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pembrolizumab (Keytruda) plus axitinib for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). KEYNOTE-426 Approval was based on KEYNOTE-426, a randomized, multicenter, open-label trial conducted in ...

gynecologic cancer

Cervical Cancer Subtype Rising in Some Populations

A new study reports that a type of cervical cancer that is less amenable to detection by Papanicolaou (Pap) testing is increasing in several subpopulations of women, pointing to the growing importance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination. The study was published by Islami ...

lung cancer

Deep-Learning Model May Improve Predictions of Survival and Specific Outcomes in Lung Cancer

A study by Xu et al in Clinical Cancer Research evaluating deep-learning networks that analyze time-series computed tomography (CT) images of patients with locally advanced NSCLC has found these networks can integrate imaging scans at multiple time points to improve clinical outcome...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

KEYNOTE-042: Pembrolizumab vs Chemotherapy in Previously Untreated Locally Advanced or Metastatic NSCLC With PD-L1 Expression ≥ 1%

As reported in The Lancet by Mok et al, the KEYNOTE-042 trial has shown an improvement in overall survival with pembrolizumab vs standard chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with locally advanced or metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without a sensitizing EGFR mutation or ...

lymphoma

Front-Line Dose-Adjusted EPOCH-R vs R-CHOP in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Bartlett et al, the phase III intergroup Alliance/CALGB 50303 trial showed front-line DA-EPOCH-R (dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab) did not improve outcomes vs standard R-CHOP...

breast cancer
leukemia
myelodysplastic syndromes

FDA Pipeline: Designations for Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, AML, and EBV-Associated Cancers

Over the past week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted several Fast Track and Orphan Drug designations to treatments for myelodysplastic syndromes, triple-negative breast cancer, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated cancers. Fast Track Designation...

solid tumors

NRG1 Gene Fusions Detected at Low Incidence Across Multiple Tumor Types

A consortium of researchers have completed an analysis of a new gene fusion they believe is responsible for the development of a wide spectrum of cancer types. According to the investigators, their studies show that errant gene fusions in neuregulin-1, or NRG1, which are present in about...

colorectal cancer

Primary Surgery Outcomes in MRI-Based ‘Good-Prognosis’ Rectal Cancer

In a Canadian phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Kennedy et al found a low rate of positive circumferential resection margins after primary surgery in patients with rectal cancer considered to have a ‘good prognosis’ based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria.   As...

multiple myeloma

Patient-Reported Outcomes With Salvage Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation vs Nontransplantation in Relapsed Multiple Myeloma

In an analysis of the phase III UK Myeloma X trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Ahmedzai et al found that patient-reported outcomes tended to be worse with salvage autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) vs nontransplantation consolidation in relapsed multiple myeloma. The...

health-care policy
issues in oncology

Study Finds Medicaid Reimbursement for Radiation Therapy Varies Widely State-to-State

A new study found wide state-to-state variations in Medicaid reimbursements to physicians who treat patients with cancer with radiation therapies. These differences could compound existing disparities in access to health care in rural communities, which tend to have higher Medicaid...

issues in oncology
integrative oncology

Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Patients With Cancer

In a recent study focusing on patients with cancer and cancer survivors, one-third of patient participants reported use of complementary and alternative medicines such as meditation, yoga, acupuncture, herbal medicine, and supplements. These findings were published by Sanford et al in JAMA...

breast cancer

Addition of Radiotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery Based on Level of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes

In a long-term follow-up of the Swedish Breast Cancer Group 91 Radiotherapy trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Kovács et al found that higher levels of stromal tumor–infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and receipt of radiotherapy were independently associated with reduced...

lymphoma

Addition of Bortezomib to R-CHOP in DLBCL Subtypes Identified With Gene-Expression Profiling

In the phase III REMoDL-B trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Davies et al found that the addition of bortezomib to standard R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) did not improve progression-free survival subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma...

gynecologic cancer
immunotherapy

KEYNOTE-158: Pembrolizumab in Previously Treated Advanced Cervical Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Chung et al, the phase II KEYNOTE-158 trial showed activity of pembrolizumab in previously treated programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive advanced cervical cancer. The study supported the 2018 accelerated approval of pembrolizumab in this...

symptom management

ASCO and ASH Release Update to Clinical Practice Guidelines for Use of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents

ASCO and the American Society of Hematology (ASH) have released an update to existing guidelines for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to manage anemia in patients with cancer. The update was simultaneously published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology and Blood Advances. “The...

symptom management

'Oral Cryotherapy' for Patients Undergoing Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy

A study by Bauman et al in JNCCN—Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network found that patients who kept ice chips in their mouths—what the study authors called “oral cryotherapy”—during oxaliplatin infusions reported less trouble with eating and...

pain management

Cost and Health-Care Utilization With Targeted Drug Delivery Plus Conventional Medical Management for Cancer-Related Pain

Results of a study published by Stearns et al in JAMA Network Open demonstrated a reduction in health-care utilization and cost for patients cancer-related pain using targeted drug delivery and conventional medical management vs conventional medical management alone. The study found...

issues in oncology

Treatment of Patients With Imminently Fatal de Novo Metastatic Cancer

Some patients who died within 1 month of being newly diagnosed with metastatic cancer in the United States received ineffective surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, according to a new study published by Sineshaw et al in JNCI Cancer Spectrum. The study authors said the...

pancreatic cancer

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Survival After Pancreatic Cancer Resection

In a study reported in JAMA Surgery, Dimitrakopoulos et al found two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in noncoding, functional regions of genes that regulate cancer progression. They were associated with survival after resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The study involved...

breast cancer

Follow-up of Adjuvant Paclitaxel and Trastuzumab in Small HER2-Positive Breast Tumors

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Tolaney et al, 7-year follow-up of the phase II Adjuvant Paclitaxel and Trastuzumab trial showed that adjuvant paclitaxel and trastuzumab were associated with “excellent” outcomes in women with small, node-negative HER2-positive breast...

Conquer Cancer Foundation Announces 2019 ASCO Annual Meeting Merit Awards

The Conquer Cancer Foundation of ASCO has announced the recipients of its 2019 ASCO Annual Meeting Merit Awards. These distinguished awards support oncology trainees who are first authors on abstracts selected for presentation at the ASCO Annual Meeting. This year, Conquer Cancer will...

breast cancer
gynecologic cancer

Actionable Pathogenic Variants in a Population-Based Cohort of Patients With Breast or Ovarian Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Kurian et al found that approximately one-quarter of women with breast cancer and one-third of those with ovarian cancer underwent cancer genetic testing, and that 8% to 15% of those tested had actionable pathogenic variants. Study Details...

head and neck cancer

Lenvatinib in Recurrent or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

In a single-center phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Tchekmedyian et al found that the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor lenvatinib was active in progressive recurrent or metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma. Study Details In the study, 32 evaluable patients at...

hepatobiliary cancer
issues in oncology

Trends in Liver Cancer Death Rates by Educational Attainment

A new study has found that rising rates of liver cancer deaths in the United States have largely been confined to individuals who have received less education—especially among men. Published by Ma et al in Cancer, the findings emphasize the need for enhanced efforts to address the growing...

issues in oncology

Collaborative Telerehabilitation in Patients With Advanced Cancer

Recent research suggests that remotely delivering rehabilitation services to patients with advanced cancer may improve their physical function, pain, and quality of life, while allowing them to spend less time in hospitals and nursing homes. These findings were published by Cheville et al in JAMA...

issues in oncology
cost of care

Costs Associated With Continued Smoking in Patients With Cancer

In a study reported in JAMA Network Open, Warren et al quantified incremental costs of first-line cancer treatment failure attributable to continued smoking in patients with cancer. Study Details The study involved development of a model to identify attributable incremental costs of subsequent...

issues in oncology

ASTRO Radiation Oncologist Workforce Study Shows Demographic Shifts

The newest study of America’s radiation oncologist workforce finds that gender and racial gaps have narrowed slightly, although persistent and growing geographic disparities point to a need for more equity in access to radiation therapy care. The survey found that fewer radiation oncologists...

issues in oncology

American Cancer Society Report Finds Application of Cancer-Reducing Strategies in the United States Is Suboptimal

The latest edition of the American Cancer Society’s (ACS) review on recent cancer prevention and early detection efforts has found that although many strategies have been proven to reduce cancer risk, their application has been suboptimal in the United States, especially in socioeconomically...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

Effect of Exercise Intervention on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Overweight or Obese Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Lee et al found that an aerobic and resistance exercise intervention reduced Framingham Risk Scores (FRS) for cardiovascular disease among overweight or obese women with early-stage breast cancer. In the single-center trial, 100 women with stage I to III...

lung cancer

Five-Fraction SBRT for Centrally Located, Inoperable NSCLC

In the phase I/II NRG Oncology/RTOG 0813 study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Bezjak et al found that five-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) was associated with relatively low rates of serious treatment-related toxicity and good outcomes in patients with centrally...

gynecologic cancer

Niraparib in Late-Line Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

In the phase II QUADRA trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Moore et al found that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor niraparib was active in fourth- or later-line treatment of ovarian cancer, particularly in patients with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD)-positive,...

bladder cancer

FDA Grants Accelerated Approval to Erdafitinib for Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to erdafitinib (Balversa) for patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with susceptible FGFR3 or FGFR2 genetic alterations that has progressed during or following platinum-containing...

skin cancer
myelodysplastic syndromes
symptom management

FDA Pipeline: Designation in Uveal Melanoma, Application for MDS Side-Effect Management

Over the past week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted a Fast Track designation to a treatment for metastatic uveal melanoma and received a biologics application for an agent to control anemia. Fast Track Designation for Tebentafusp in Metastatic Uveal Melanoma The FDA granted...

pancreatic cancer

Factors Contributing to Improved Survival Following Total Neoadjuvant Therapy for Borderline/Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

A newly published Mayo Clinic study has found that a presurgery treatment plan for patients with borderline/locally advanced pancreatic cancer undergoing total neoadjuvant therapy may improve outcomes. The findings were published by Truty et al in Annals of Surgery. The study followed 194...

gastroesophageal cancer

Paclitaxel or Cisplatin Plus Fluorouracil in Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer

In the Chinese phase III ESO-Shanghai 1 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Chen et al found that paclitaxel plus fluorouracil did not significantly prolong overall survival vs standard cisplatin plus fluorouracil in definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) for locally...

lung cancer

Prophylactic Irradiation of Chest Wall Procedure Sites in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

In a phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Bayman et al found that prophylactic radiotherapy to the chest wall after diagnostic or therapeutic procedures did not reduce the risk of chest wall metastases in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. In the open-label,...

issues in oncology
pain management

Opioid-Related Hospitalizations Among Patients With Cancer in the United States

In a study reported in a research letter in JAMA Oncology, Chua et al found that opioid-related hospitalizations among American patients with cancer are rare, increasing at a very low rate, and consist mostly of hospitalization for nonheroin opioid poisoning. The study analyzed trends and risk...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

FDA Expands Pembrolizumab Indication for NSCLC in First-Line Setting

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for the first-line treatment of patients with stage III non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are not candidates for surgical resection or definitive chemoradiation, or those with metastatic NSCLC....

issues in oncology

ASCO Announces New Task Force to Address Rural Cancer Care Gap

Yesterday at the National Press Club in Washington, DC, ASCO announced a new task force aimed at reducing disparities and improving outcomes for patients and survivors of cancer who live in rural communities. The new Rural Cancer Care Task Force will identify opportunities to close the care gap and ...

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