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Gynecologic Cancers
Immunotherapy

FDA Grants Approval to Lenvatinib/Pembrolizumab in Advanced Endometrial Cancer, Announces Project Orbis

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has announced Project Orbis, an initiative of the FDA Oncology Center of Excellence (OCE). Project Orbis provides a framework for concurrent submission and review of oncology drugs among its international partners. Under this project, the FDA, the...

Prostate Cancer

ASTRO 2019: Long-Term Hormone Therapy May Increase Other-Cause Mortality in Men With Prostate Cancer Receiving Early Salvage Radiotherapy

Findings from the randomized phase III NRG Oncology/RTOG 9601 trial were initially reported in 2017, and showed that the addition of 2 years of antiandrogen therapy to postsurgical radiation treatment for men with recurrent prostate cancer increased their long-term overall survival rate. That study ...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

ASTRO 2019: Patterns of Disease Progression in Patients With Unresectable Stage III NSCLC: Analysis of the PACIFIC Trial

Andreas Rimner, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, presented an update of the landmark PACIFIC trial at the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) (Abstract LBA-6).

In earlier reports from the randomized phase III trial, Antonia et al had evaluated...

Pancreatic Cancer

POLO Trial: Maintenance Olaparib in Germline BRCA-Mutated Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

As reported in TheNew England Journal of Medicine by Talia Golan, MD, of Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, and colleagues, the phase III POLO trial showed that maintenance treatment with the poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor olaparib improved progression-free survival vs...

Pancreatic Cancer

Targeting an Important Tumor Vulnerability With Maintenance Olaparib in Germline BRCA-Mutated Pancreatic Cancer

In the POLO trial, which is discussed in this issue of The ASCO Post, Golan and colleagues evaluated the potential benefit of maintenance olaparib after disease stability or response to a minimum of 4 months of platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and a...

Gynecologic Cancers
Immunotherapy

Bevacizumab/Niraparib vs Niraparib Alone for Platinum-Sensitive Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

In the phase II NSGO-AVANOVA2/ENGOT-ov24 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Mansoor Raza Mirza, MD, and colleagues found that the combination of bevacizumab plus niraparib prolonged progression-free survival vs niraparib alone in women with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer.

Study...

Head and Neck Cancer
Symptom Management

ASTRO 2019: Machine-Learning Model May Accurately Predict Radiation Side Effects in Patients With Head and Neck Cancers

A study by Reddy et al investigating the use of a machine-learning model to predict which patients with head and neck cancer being treated with radiation may experience significant weight loss, feeding tube placement, and unplanned hospitalization has found that the model accurately identified the...

Issues in Oncology
Pain Management

Access to Cannabis Products for Patients With Cancer in a State With Restrictive Medical Marijuana Laws

Results of a survey reported by Singh et al in the Journal of Oncology Practice found that a population of primarily patients with cancer enrolled in Georgia’s medical marijuana program reported concerns about the legality of marijuana-related products and their ability to obtain the products.

As...

Prostate Cancer

ASTRO 2019: ORIOLE Trial: Observation vs SABR for Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer

The randomized, phase II ORIOLE trial studying the efficacy of targeted high-dose radiation for men with oligometastatic prostate cancer has shown that stereotactic ablative radiation (SABR) is an effective and safe option for patients who wish to delay hormone-suppression therapy. Data from the...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

ASTRO 2019: SBRT After Disease Progression on Immunotherapy Increases PFS in Patients With Metastatic NSCLC

Non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for the vast majority of all lung cancers—between 80% and 85% of those diagnosed in the United States—and is among the most deadly cancers for both men and women, exceeding the mortality rate of colon, breast, and pancreatic cancers combined.

The results...

Issues in Oncology
Gynecologic Cancers
Health-Care Policy

ASTRO 2019: Effect of Closure of Women’s Health Clinics From 2010 to 2013 on Cervical Cancer Screening and Detection

Following the closure of nearly 100 women’s health clinics across the United States from 2010 to 2013, fewer women were screened for cervical cancer; more women were diagnosed with advanced stages of the disease; and disease mortality rates rose. Findings from a new analysis combining several...

Symptom Management

Conundrums in Managing Cancer-Associated Thrombosis

Although there may be a clear role for prophylactic anticoagulation in hospitalized patients and those undergoing surgery, indication for prophylactic anticoagulation for patients with cancer seen in the ambulatory setting has yet to emerge. Until clinical trial data on prophylactic...

Breast Cancer

Meta-analysis of Chemotherapy and Hormonal Treatments for Postmenopausal Women With Metastatic Breast Cancer

In a systematic review and network meta-analysis reported in The Lancet Oncology, Giuliano et al found that progression-free survival in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer was improved with first- or second-line CDK4/6 inhibitors plus...

Hematologic Malignancies
Issues in Oncology

Single-Center Study of Human Herpesvirus 6B Detection in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

In a single-institution study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hill et al found that detection of human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was associated with increased mortality in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with lower...

Breast Cancer
Survivorship
Symptom Management

Home-Based Exercise and Weight Loss Programs for Lymphedema Management in Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Schmitz et al, the WISER Survivor trial showed no benefit of home-based exercise and weight loss programs on lymphedema outcomes vs facility-based lymphedema care among overweight breast cancer survivors.

Study Details

In the trial, 351 overweight breast cancer...

Breast Cancer
Issues in Oncology

FDA Issues Drug Safety Communication on Lung Inflammation Due to Treatment With CDK4/6 Inhibitors

On September 13, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a drug safety communication warning that palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib—used to treat some patients with advanced breast cancer—may cause rare but severe inflammation of the lungs. The agency approved new warnings about...

Gynecologic Cancers

Neoadjuvant Cisplatin/Gemcitabine Followed by Standard Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

In a Brazilian single-center phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, da Costa et al found that neoadjuvant cisplatin/gemcitabine followed by standard chemoradiation therapy with cisplatin did not improve outcomes vs chemoradiation therapy alone in locally advanced cervical...

Solid Tumors
Immunotherapy

Liquid Biopsy to Determine Patient Response to Immune Checkpoint Blockade

Although studies have demonstrated that microsatellite instability (MSI) and high tumor mutational burden (TMB) are promising pan-tumor biomarkers for identifying patients for treatment with immune checkpoint blockade, obtaining tissue from unresectable or metastatic solid tumors for genetic...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

WCLC 2019: KEYNOTE-024 Survival Update Shows Benefit With Pembrolizumab vs Chemotherapy in Advanced NSCLC

First-line pembrolizumab monotherapy provides durable long-term overall survival benefit compared to chemotherapy in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to data from the KEYNOTE-024 trial presented by Martin Reck, MD, PhD, at the International Association for the...

Lung Cancer

WCLC 2019: Selpercatinib in RET Fusion–Positive NSCLC

Patients with RET fusion–positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) comprise up to 2% of all NSCLC cases, but there are no targeted therapies currently approved for patients with this form of lung cancer. Selpercatinib (also known as LOXO-292) is an oral and highly selective investigational drug...

Lung Cancer

WCLC 2019: Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery vs Open Surgery in Lung Cancer

Video-assisted thoracic surgery was associated with lower in-hospital complications and a shorter length of stay compared with open surgery among British patients who were diagnosed with early-stage lung cancer, according to research presented by Lim et al at the International Association for the...

Lung Cancer
Multiple Myeloma
Sarcoma

FDA Pipeline: Breakthrough Therapy Designation in Lung Cancer, Orphan Drug Designations in Myeloma and Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to tepotinib for metastatic non–small cell lung cancer harboring MET exon 14 skipping alterations, and Orphan Drug designations to novel chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies in both multiple myeloma ...

Supportive Care

Chef Uses Flavor to Fuel Her Mother’s Appetite During Cancer Treatment

The battle against cancer is typically waged by the surgeon and oncologist, but a Lexington, Kentucky–based, award-winning restaurateur and chef discovered her role as a foot soldier when she applied her culinary skills to deal with the debilitating side effects of her mother’s lung cancer...

CNS Cancers

Quality of Life and Neurocognitive Function With Lomustine/Temozolomide vs Temozolomide Alone for MGMT-Methylated Glioblastoma

In an analysis from the phase III CeTeG/NOA-09 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Weller et al found no clinically relevant differences in health-related quality of life or neurocognitive function in patients with newly diagnosed MGMT-methylated glioblastoma treated with lomustine/temozolomide...

Issues in Oncology

Oncology Communications Online: Pause and Think Before Hitting ‘Send’

The emergence of online technologies over the past few decades has fundamentally changed the way society communicates and shares information. This sea change has also had profound influence on the practice of medicine, from real-time information-sharing among colleagues, to having instant access...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

WCLC 2019: Final Overall Survival Results of IMpower131 Trial in Advanced Squamous NSCLC

Patients with stage IV squamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with high programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression treated with atezolizumab and chemotherapy experienced longer overall survival rates than those treated with chemotherapy alone. The data from the IMpower131 trial were...

Issues in Oncology
Solid Tumors
Hematologic Malignancies

Flu Vaccine Effectiveness in Patients With Cancer

In a Canadian study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Blanchette et al found the influenza vaccine was effective among patient with cancer, with greater effectiveness in patients with solid tumors vs those with hematologic malignancies.

Study Details

The population-based study involved...

Lung Cancer

WCLC 2019: Autoantibody Diagnostic Test Followed by CT Imaging May Improve Diagnosis, Reduce Mortality in Lung Cancer

A combination of the EarlyCDT-Lung Test followed by computed tomography (CT) imaging in Scottish patients at risk for lung cancer resulted in a significant decrease in late-stage diagnosis of lung cancer and may decrease lung cancer–specific mortality, according to research presented at...

Lung Cancer

WCLC 2019: BioMILD Trial of Blood MicroRNA Plus Low-Dose CT to Reduce CT Repeats in Lung Cancer Screening

Researchers from Milan reported that using a blood microRNA assay accompanied by low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening is safe and effective in screening patients for lung cancer. The results were shared at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 2019 World...

Issues in Oncology

WCLC 2019: Declaration From IASLC on Tobacco Cessation After Cancer Diagnosis

The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) used the platform of the 2019 World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC) to call attention to the importance of tobacco cessation after cancer diagnosis and urged all physicians to screen patients with cancer for tobacco use and...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

WCLC 2019: Pooled Analysis of CheckMate 017 and 057: 5-Year Outcomes With Nivolumab vs Docetaxel in Previously Treated NSCLC

Pooled data on two clinical trials demonstrated patients with previously treated non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with nivolumab had a greater than fivefold increase in 5-year overall survival rate compared to treatment with the chemotherapy docetaxel. Scott Gettinger, MD, of Yale...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

WCLC 2019: CASPIAN Trial Finds Addition of Durvalumab to Chemotherapy Improves Overall Survival in Patients With Extensive-Stage SCLC

The addition of durvalumab to chemotherapy improved overall survival in patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), according to research presented at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 2019 World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC) (Abstract PL02.11)....

2019 Lasker Awards for Basic and Clinical Medical Research and Public Service Announced

On September 10, The Lasker Foundation announced the winners of its 2019 Lasker Awards: Max D. Cooper, MD, of Emory University, and Jacques Miller, AC, FRS, FAA, of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, will receive the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award; H. Michael...

Gynecologic Cancers

Olaparib Monotherapy Improves Outcomes in BRCA-Mutated, Platinum-Sensitive Relapsed Ovarian Cancer

Compared with treatment with nonplatinum-based chemotherapy, monotherapy with the PARP (poly [ADP ribose] polymerase) inhibitor olaparib led to statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements in overall response rate and progression-free survival in women with germline BRCA-mutated, ...

Breast Cancer
Immunotherapy

T-DM1 Plus Neratinib in Metastatic HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

In the phase Ib NSABP Foundation Trial FB-10 reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Jame Abraham, MD, and colleagues found evidence of activity of the combination of ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) plus neratinib in metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer and identified the dose of the...

Solid Tumors
Immunotherapy

Pamiparib Plus Tislelizumab in Advanced Solid Tumors

In an Australian phase Ia/b trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Friedlander et al found evidence of activity of the combination of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor pamiparib and the programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor tislelizumab in patients with previously treated advanced...

Lung Cancer

WCLC 2019: Screening Efficacy of PLCOm2012 vs USPSTF Criteria

Researchers reported that a prospective trial comparing two screening methods for patients at risk of developing lung cancer found that a model used by Canadian, Australian, and European public health organizations detected more cancers than the screening model used by the United States Preventive...

Lung Cancer
Issues in Oncology

WCLC 2019: Survey Findings on Evidence-Based Guidelines for Molecular Testing in Lung Cancer

One-third of those who responded to a survey reported they are unaware of evidence-based guidelines that support the use of molecular testing in lung cancer, according to results from the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Global Survey on Molecular Testing in Lung...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

WCLC 2019: First-Line Nivolumab/Ipilimumab in Special Populations With NSCLC

First-line therapy consisting of nivolumab plus ipilimumab showed a consistent safety profile in special populations with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to research presented by Fabrice Barlesi, MD, PhD, of Aix-Marseille University, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille...

Lung Cancer

WCLC 2019: Safety and Toxicity of AMG 510 for KRAS G12C–Mutated, Advanced NSCLC

In a clinical trial testing the toxicity of a KRAS inhibitor, the treatment demonstrated early promising antitumor activity and few adverse side effects in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring a KRAS G12C mutation. The research was presented by Govindan et al at the...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

WCLC 2019: Two Studies Show Tumor Mutational Burden Not Associated With Pembrolizumab Efficacy in NSCLC

At the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 2019 World Conference on Lung Cancer (WCLC), two presentations showed that tumor mutational burden is not associated with the efficacy of pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy in patients with non–small cell lung cancer...

Gynecologic Cancers

2019 Quality Care: Improving Caregiver Identification and Support in a Gynecologic Oncology Practice

In a study reported at the ASCO Quality Care Symposium and simultaneously published in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Campbell et al found that an ASCO Quality Training Program Project—the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) initiative—resulted in improvement in primary caregiver identification and...

Symptom Management
Pain Management

2019 Quality Care: Improving Documentation of Pain and Constipation Assessment and Management

In a study reported at the ASCO Quality Care Symposium and simultaneously published in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Chineke et al found that a Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) initiated in collaboration with ASCO at the Georgia Cancer Center for Excellence (GCCE) at Grady Health...

Issues in Oncology

2019 Quality Care: Intervention to Improve Rates of Resident Advanced Care Planning Documentation

In a single-center study reported at the ASCO Quality Care Symposium and simultaneously published in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Switzer et al found that an intervention consisting of a resident training module and use of a best practice alert (BPA) in electronic medical records (EMRs)...

Breast Cancer

USPSTF Recommendation on Medication Use to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk

In a statement published in JAMA, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that clinicians offer to prescribe risk-reducing medications to women who are at an increased risk of breast cancer and at low risk of adverse events related to medications. However, the Task Force...

Gynecologic Cancers
Immunotherapy

Avelumab for Mismatch Repair–Deficient and Mismatch Repair–Proficient Endometrial Cancer

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Panagiotis A. Konstantinopoulos, MD, PhD, and colleagues found evidence of promising activity of the programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor avelumab in mismatch repair–deficient (MMRD) recurrent or persistent endometrial...

Hepatobiliary Cancer

Real-Time ctDNA Evaluation in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

In a study published in the Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Mody et al described results from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) testing in a real-time clinical context. The authors wrote, “[ctDNA assessment] holds incredible promise for early...

Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Leukemia
Lung Cancer
Solid Tumors
Colorectal Cancer
Hepatobiliary Cancer

FDA Pipeline: Fast Track Designation in Myelodysplastic Syndrome and AML, Plus Multiple Breakthrough Designations

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Fast Track designation to magrolimab in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The agency also granted Breakthrough Therapy designations in lung cancer and desmoid tumors, as well as Breakthrough Device designations...

Breast Cancer

Menopausal Hormone Therapy Use and Risk of Breast Cancer

In a study reported in The Lancet, the Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer found that the use of menopausal hormone therapy is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, with risk increasing as the duration of use increases, in both current and past users.

Study...

Lymphoma

Tumor Immune Infiltration and Disease Progression in Follicular Lymphoma

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Tobin et al found that low tumor immune infiltration—indicated by low programmed cell death ligand 2 (PD-L2) expression—was associated with earlier disease progression in follicular lymphoma.

As stated by the investigators, “Understanding the ...

Pancreatic Cancer

ASTRO Guideline on Use of Radiation Therapy for Patients With Pancreatic Cancer

A new clinical guideline from the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) provides recommendations on the use of radiation therapy to treat patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, including when radiation treatments are appropriate, as well as the optimal dosing, timing, and...

Gynecologic Cancers

Does PTSD Increase the Risk of Developing Ovarian Cancer?

Women who experienced six or more symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at some point in life had a twofold greater risk of developing ovarian cancer compared with women who never experienced any PTSD symptoms. These findings were published by Roberts et al in Cancer Research.

The...

Lung Cancer
Immunotherapy

Does the Addition of Bevacizumab to Erlotinib in Advanced EGFR-Mutant NSCLC Improve PFS?

In a phase II trial reported in JAMA OncologyThomas E. Stinchcombe, MD, and colleagues found that the addition of bevacizumab to erlotinib did not significantly improve progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Study Details

The...

Breast Cancer

Neoadjuvant Talazoparib for Operable BRCA-Mutated Breast Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Jennifer K. Litton, MD, and colleagues found that 6 months of neoadjuvant talazoparib therapy resulted in a high rate of residual cancer burden (RCB) of 0 (pathologic complete response) in patients with stage I–III breast cancer with germline ...

Survivorship

Solid Organ Transplantation in Aging Survivors of Childhood Cancer

A retrospective analysis from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study reported in The Lancet Oncology by Dietz et al found that the need for solid organ transplantation was infrequent in aging survivors of childhood cancer, with greater organ-specific risk being associated with particular therapeutic...

Issues in Oncology

Association Between Postdischarge Bleeding in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome and Subsequent Cancer Diagnosis

Bleeding during the first 6 months after discharge from the hospital for acute coronary syndrome may be linked to subsequent cancer diagnosis, according to research presented by Muñoz Pousa et al at the European Society of Cardiology Congress 2019 (Abstract P677).

“Our results suggest that patients ...

Issues in Oncology

New Report Finds Cancer Drugs Account for Over a Quarter of All New Drug Approvals in the United States

Cancer drugs currently account for 27% of all new drug approvals in the United States since 2010—an increase from the 4% share they occupied in the 1980s, a newly completed analysis summarized in the most recent issue of the Tufts CSDD Impact Report.

From 1980 through 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug...

Issues in Oncology
Cost of Care

2019 Quality Care: Cost of Treatment, Prior Authorization of Treatment Plans May Cause Barriers to Care

Drug costs and requirements for prior authorization of treatment plans pose barriers to cancer treatment and can potentially affect outcomes for many patients, according to two studies that will be presented at the ASCO Quality Care Symposium.

The studies respectively examine how the high...

Issues in Oncology

2019 Quality Care: Socioeconomic Deprivation and Outcomes in Cancer Clinical Trials

In a study to be presented by Unger et al at the 2019 ASCO Quality Care Symposium, researchers found patients living in socioeconomically deprived areas were more likely to experience worse survival in cancer clinical trials, even after adjustments for race and insurance (Abstract 162).

Methods

...

Issues in Oncology

2019 Quality Care: End-of-Life Care in Western Washington State vs Alberta, Canada

In a study to be presented by Khaki et al at the 2019 ASCO Quality Care Symposium, researchers found more aggressive end-of-life measures—including use of chemotherapy and admissions to the intensive care unit (ICU)—were employed in the last 30 days of life in Western Washington state vs Alberta,...

Kidney Cancer
Immunotherapy

Individualized Axitinib Regimens After Immunotherapy for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

In a phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Ornstein et al found that individualized axitinib regimens showed activity in patients with locally recurrent or metastatic renal cell carcinoma who had previously received immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, although the progression-free...

Leukemia
Survivorship

Risk of Infections in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Pelland-Marcotte et al found that survivors of childhood leukemia remained at significantly increased risk of infection compared with matched controls during an extended period following completion of treatment.  

Study Details

The...

Hematologic Malignancies
Issues in Oncology

Reducing Time to Chemotherapy Initiation in Patients Electively Admitted to a Hematologic Malignancy Service

In a single-institution study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Galeas et al found that intervention in key drivers in the care process could reduce the time to initiation of chemotherapy in patients with elective admission to a hematologic malignancy service.

Study Details

The goal...

Issues in Oncology

Analysis of HPV-Related Cancers Reported From 2012 to 2016

During 2012–2016, an average of approximately 34,800 human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers were reported each year, according to a new study published by Senkomago et al in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Among the cancers probably caused by HPV, 92% are attributable to the HPV types ...

Issues in Oncology

FDA Recommendation on Duodenoscopes With Disposable Components

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended that duodenoscope manufacturers and health-care facilities transition to different types of duodenoscopes that may pose less risk to patient safety. Specifically, because of challenges with cleaning these devices for reuse and persistent...

Breast Cancer

Pyrotinib or Lapatinib With Capecitabine in Previously Treated HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer

In a Chinese phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Ma et al, the combination of the pan-ErbB inhibitor pyrotinib and capecitabine improved response rate vs lapatinib/capecitabine in women with HER2-positive relapsed or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with...

Immunotherapy

Key Predictors of Response Rates to PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor Therapy Across Cancer Types

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Lee and Ruppin found that CD8-positive T-cell abundance, tumor mutational burden, and high PD1 gene expression were the strongest predictors of response to anti–programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) treatment across cancer...

Genomics/Genetics
Leukemia

Chromosomal Abnormalities and Prognosis in NPM1-Mutant AML

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Angenendt et al found that adverse-risk cytogenetics were associated with significantly poorer outcomes vs normal karyotype among patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutation.

As stated by the...

Hepatobiliary Cancer
Pancreatic Cancer

Results From the TAPUR Study on Palbociclib for Pancreatic Cancer and Cholangiocarcinoma

New results from ASCO’s Targeted Agent and Profiling Utilization Registry (TAPUR) study have demonstrated that single-agent palbociclib has no meaningful clinical activity in patients with CDKN2A-mutated or -deleted advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. These findings were...

Issues in Oncology
Survivorship

What Role Do Physicians Play in Health Promotion Among Patients With Cancer?

A recent study published by Stump et al in Cancer indicated that certain physicians who care for patients with cancer do not often promote healthy lifestyle changes to cancer survivors, and they may fear that providing such advice would distress or overwhelm patients. The findings are noteworthy...

Kidney Cancer
Immunotherapy

Extended Follow-up of CheckMate 214: Nivolumab/Ipilimumab vs Sunitinib as First-Line Treatment for Advanced RCC

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Robert J. Motzer, MD, and colleagues, extended follow-up of the phase III CheckMate 214 trial has shown a maintained survival benefit for first-line nivolumab/ipilimumab vs sunitinib in patients with previously untreated intermediate- or poor-risk advanced...

Survivorship
Issues in Oncology

Risks of Cardiovascular Diseases in Survivors of Adult Cancers

In a study reported in The Lancet, Strongman et al found that survivors of most site-specific cancers had an increased risk for one or more cardiovascular diseases during follow-up compared with a matched control group of patients without cancer.

This population-based cohort study employed...

Issues in Oncology
Survivorship

High-Deductible Health Plans, Access to Care, and Emergency Department Use Among Cancer Survivors

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Zheng et al found that patients with cancer and high-deductible health plans had increases in delayed/forgone care, an effect that was attenuated for those with health savings accounts. Emergency department use was similar across insurance...

Issues in Oncology

Exposure to Secondhand E-Cigarette Aerosols Increasing Among Middle and High School Students

A growing number of middle and high school students are being exposed to secondhand aerosols from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) by living with or being around individuals who are vaping, according to data from a national survey. Such exposure increased rapidly in 2018 compared to the years...

Colorectal Cancer
Issues in Oncology

Text Instructions and Reminders May Improve Colonoscopy Adherence Rates

Having text message conversations with patients 1 week before they are scheduled for a colonoscopy decreased “no-show” rates, according to a recent study published by Mahmud et al in Health Education & Behavior. Through sending reminders and instruction, the team increased the rate of...

Multiple Myeloma

Selinexor/Dexamethasone in Triple-Class Refractory Multiple Myeloma

In the phase IIb STORM Part 2 study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Chari et al found that the combination of oral selinexor and dexamethasone produced responses in patients with multiple myeloma refractory to prior treatment with an alkylating agent, immunomodulatory agent, and...

Neuroendocrine Tumors

Prognostic Tool for Advanced, Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors Treated With a Somatostatin Analog

In the GETNE-TRASGU study (Spanish Group of Neuroendocrine and Endocrine Tumors Treated With Analog of Somatostatin in Gastroenteropancreatic and Unknown Primary NETs) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Carmona-Bayonas et al developed a predictive model for progression-free survival in...

Breast Cancer
Issues in Oncology

FDA Issues Draft Guidance Encouraging Inclusion of Male Patients in Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

A draft guidance issued by the U.S. Food Drug Administration (FDA) on August 26 includes draft recommendations for the inclusion of male patients in breast cancer clinical trials.

Historically, males either have not been included in clinical trials for drugs to treat breast cancer, or inclusion of ...

Pancreatic Cancer

Role of the YAP Regulatory Network in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Researchers have decoded a chain of molecules that are critical for the growth and survival of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. They say their findings, published by Murakami et al in Developmental Cell, suggest that inhibiting the YAP biologic network may effectively regress early-stage...

Hepatobiliary Cancer

Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy and Reduced Mortality in Patients With Hepatitis C and a History of Liver Cancer

A study published by Singal et al in Gastroenterology demonstrated that treatment with antiviral therapy for hepatitis C reduced liver-related deaths by nearly 50% in patients with a history of liver cancer.

Previous Research

The finding builds on a December 2018 study by Singal et al also...

Immunotherapy
Skin Cancer

Phase Ib Trial of Toripalimab/Axitinib in Asian Patients With Advanced Mucosal Melanoma

In a Chinese phase Ib study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sheng et al reported activity with the combination of the anti–programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) agent toripalimab plus axitinib in patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma.

As stated by the investigators, whereas...

lymphoma
prostate cancer

FDA Pipeline: Priority Reviews in Prostate Cancer, Mantle Cell Lymphoma

This week, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted new drug applications for enzalutamide in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer and zanubrutinib in relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma, and granted both applications Priority Review. Priority Review for Enzalutamide in ...

skin cancer

Genomic Landscape of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Researchers have developed the largest descriptive genomic analysis of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma to date. Their analysis, published by Knepper et al in Clinical Cancer Research, will provide important information to improve the care and treatment of patients with Merkel cell...

lung cancer

Addition of Pemetrexed/Carboplatin to Gefitinib in Advanced EGFR-Mutant NSCLC

In an Indian single-center phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Noronha et al found that the addition of pemetrexed/carboplatin to gefitinib improved progression-free and overall survival in first-line treatment of advanced EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung cancer...

head and neck cancer

Swallowing-Related Quality of Life After Radiotherapy vs Surgery for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

In the phase II ORATOR trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Nichols et al found a statistical but not clinically meaningful improvement in swallowing-related quality of life outcomes 1 year after treatment with radiotherapy vs transoral robotic surgery and neck dissection in patients with...

bladder cancer

Gemcitabine/Eribulin in Cisplatin-Ineligible Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

In the final analysis from a phase II California Cancer Consortium trial (NCI-9653) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sadeghi et al found the combination of gemcitabine and eribulin showed activity in cisplatin-ineligible patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Study Details...

colorectal cancer

Oral Antibiotics and Risk of Colon or Rectal Cancer

In an extensive data mining analysis of British medical records, researchers found that taking even a single course of antibiotics might boost—albeit slightly—the risk of developing colon cancer, but not rectal cancer, a decade later. The findings, reported by Zhang et al in Gut,...

skin cancer

Impact of Genes on Total Number and Type of Nevi

A study by Duffy et al in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology reported on specific gene variations affecting the number and types of moles on the body and their role in causing skin cancer.  “The goal was to investigate the genetic underpinnings of different mole classes, or...

head and neck cancer

Deintensified Chemoradiotherapy for HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

In a phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Chera et al found that deintensified chemoradiotherapy produced favorable outcomes in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Study Details In the multicenter trial, 114 patients were recruited...

breast cancer
gynecologic cancer

USPSTF Recommendation on Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-Related Cancer

As reported in JAMA, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended risk assessment and, if indicated, genetic counseling and testing for potentially harmful BRCA1/2 mutations in women with a personal or family history of breast, ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal cancer or who have...

head and neck cancer

Incidence of HPV-Associated Head and Neck Cancers in the United States

In a study by Mahal et al published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, researchers conducted a population-based assessment of the incidence and demographic burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in the United States. The researchers...

issues in oncology

Racial Reporting and Representation in Oncology Trials

New research published by Loree et al in JAMA Oncology found that race and race subgroup analysis reporting does not occur frequently and that black and Hispanic populations are underrepresented in oncology trials that have led to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals. The study raises...

breast cancer

Total Cumulative Chemotherapy Dose and Survival in Breast Cancer

Physicians should attempt to maintain full doses of chemotherapy, especially early in the course of treatment, for patients with intermediate- or high-risk breast cancer, according to research published by Veitch et al in JNCCN—Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. The...

pancreatic cancer

Adavosertib Plus Gemcitabine and Radiotherapy in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

In a phase I dose-escalation trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Cuneo et al established the phase II dose of the Wee1 kinase inhibitor adavosertib in combination with gemcitabine and radiotherapy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Wee1 inhibition impedes DNA damage response and ...

skin cancer
symptom management

Risk of Cardiovascular Adverse Events in Patients With Melanoma Treated With Combined BRAF and MEK Inhibition vs BRAF Inhibition Alone

In a meta-analysis reported in JAMA Network Open, Mincu et al found that the risk of some types of cardiovascular adverse events was higher with combined BRAF and MEK inhibitor treatment vs BRAF inhibitor monotherapy in patients with melanoma. The meta-analysis included 2,317 patients in five...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Nivolumab/Brentuximab Vedotin in Relapsed or Refractory Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Zinzani et al, findings in a phase II expansion cohort of the CheckMate 436 study indicated high levels of activity with the combination of nivolumab and brentuximab vedotin in relapsed or refractory primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. As...

issues in oncology

Obesity-Associated Cancers and Age Demographics

A study published by Koroukian et al in JAMA Network Open found that from 2000 to 2016, incident obesity-associated cancers were increasingly found in younger age groups. The authors suggest that interventions are needed to reduce obesity and to implement individualized screening programs. The...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

T-Cell Receptor Gene Therapy in HPV-Associated Epithelial Cancers

In a first-in-human phase I/II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Doran et al found that autologous genetically engineered T cells expressing a T-cell receptor directed against the human papillomavirus (HPV)16 E6 oncoprotein were capable of inducing tumor regression in metastatic,...

breast cancer

Neoadjuvant Letrozole Plus Taselisib or Placebo in Postmenopausal Women With ER-Positive, HER2-Negative Early Breast Cancer

In the phase II LORELEI trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Saura et al found that the addition of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor taselisib to neoadjuvant letrozole improved objective response rates but not pathologic complete response rates in women with estrogen receptor...

issues in oncology

Relationship Between Sleep Apnea and Cancer Risk in Women

Women with severe sleep apnea appear to also have an elevated risk of developing cancer, according to findings from a study by Pataka et al in the European Respiratory Journal. No causal relationship was demonstrated, but a link between nocturnal hypoxia in women and higher cancer risk was...

NCORP Expands to More Sites

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has awarded 53 grants to researchers in the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) to conduct multisite cancer clinical trials and cancer care delivery studies in their communities. In addition to seven research hubs, these NCI grants went to 32...

prostate cancer

Mortality Risk for Patients With Preexisting Cardiovascular Conditions Treated With Abiraterone Acetate or Enzalutamide

A new population-based study showed that novel oral androgen signaling–inhibitor therapies may be associated with an increased risk of death in patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions. The research was published by Lu-Yao et al in European Urology. “Data from published ...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Pooled Analysis of 4-Year Survival With Nivolumab Therapy in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced NSCLC

In an analysis reported in The Lancet Oncology, Antonia et al identified long-term survival rates with nivolumab therapy in patients with previously treated advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The pooled analysis included data from the CheckMate 017, 057, 063, and 003 trials, each...

pancreatic cancer

Surgical Resection Among Patients Receiving Primary Chemotherapy for Borderline Resectable and Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

In an Italian prospective cohort study reported in JAMA Surgery, Maggino et al found that among patients receiving primary chemotherapy for newly diagnosed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, conversion to surgical resection was achieved in 24% of those with borderline resectable disease and 9% of...

colorectal cancer

Does Exercise Improve Outcomes in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer?

Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who engaged in moderate exercise while undergoing chemotherapy tended to have delayed progression of their disease and fewer severe side effects from treatment, according to the results of a new study published by Guercio et al in the Journal of Clinical...

FDA OCE and Syapse Announce Research Collaboration Focused on Regulatory Use of Real-World Evidence

Syapse and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Oncology Center of Excellence (OCE) have signed a multiyear research collaboration agreement focused on the use of real-world evidence to support regulatory decision-making. Syapse and the OCE will work with stakeholders across the FDA to...

leukemia
prostate cancer
gastrointestinal cancer

FDA Pipeline: Designation in CLL, New Drug Application in GIST, New Prostate Ablation System Receives 510(k) Clearance

Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to acalabrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), accepted a new drug application for avapritinib in some types of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), and granted 501(k) clearance to market the...

hematologic malignancies

FDA Approves Fedratinib for Myelofibrosis

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved fedratinib (Inrebic) for adults with intermediate-2 or high-risk primary or secondary (postpolycythemia vera or postessential thrombocythemia) myelofibrosis. “Prior to today, there was one FDA-approved drug to treat patients with...

solid tumors

Relapse of Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors During Active Surveillance

In a single-institution study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hamilton et al found that relapses of clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) during postorchiectomy active surveillance most frequently occurred in the retroperitoneum and were cured by single-modality...

breast cancer

Circulating Tumor DNA and Relapse in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Garcia-Murillas et al found that detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) during follow-up after initial treatment for early breast cancer was associated with a high risk of relapse. Detection at diagnosis was also associated with poorer relapse-free...

issues in oncology

Single-Institution Study of Next-Generation Sequencing Outcomes in Patients With Cancer

In a single-institution retrospective study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Davis and colleagues found that next-generation sequencing (NGS) tests resulted in changes in management in a small proportion of patients with cancer. Study Details The study involved retrospective review...

breast cancer
colorectal cancer
head and neck cancer
lung cancer

FDA Approves Entrectinib for NTRK-Fusion Cancers, ROS1-Positive NSCLC

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to entrectinib (Rozlytrek) for adult and adolescent patients whose cancers have an NTRK (neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase) genetic fusion and for whom there are no effective treatments. Entrectinib was also...

hepatobiliary cancer

CD8-Positive, Ki67-Positive T Cells Producing Interferon Gamma as a Biomarker of Response to Sorafenib Therapy in Patients With Advanced HCC

Immunology researchers have uncovered a biomarker that may help explain why some patients respond better than others to sorafenib, a common chemotherapy used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Their analysis of immune responses among patients receiving sorafenib, published by...

breast cancer
survivorship

Adiposity Distribution and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease Among Breast Cancer Survivors

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Cespedes Feliciano et al found that increased visceral and intramuscular adiposity were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease among breast cancer survivors, independent of baseline risk factors and cancer treatment. Study...

lung cancer

Olaparib/Temozolomide Shows Activity in Patients With Relapsed Small Cell Lung Cancer

Small cell lung cancer accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers and has high metastatic potential and poor clinical outcomes. While untreated small cell lung cancers are usually highly sensitive to cytotoxic chemotherapy—with response rates of between 50% and 70%—patients...

prostate cancer

FDA Review Finds No Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer With Parkinson's Disease Treatments Containing Entacapone

A U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review of additional data found no increased risk of prostate cancer with the use of entacapone to treat Parkinson’s disease. The FDA conducted this review after an earlier trial—the Stalevo Reduction in Dyskinesia Evaluation–Parkinson's...

issues in oncology

Age Disparities Among Patients in Cancer Clinical Trials and Patients With Cancer in the General Population

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Ludmir et al found that the median age of patients with common cancers enrolled in clinical trials was substantially lower than the median age of patients with the same cancers in the general population. Age disparity was greater in industry-funded trials....

prostate cancer

Are MRI-Assisted Biopsies More Effective Than Standard Ultrasound-Guided Biopsies Alone in the Detection of Prostate Cancer?

Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to target biopsies is more effective at detecting prostate cancers that are likely to need treatment than standard ultrasound-guided biopsies alone, according to research published by Elwenspoek et al in JAMA Network Open. Prostate biopsies can cause side...

pancreatic cancer

Germline RABL3 Mutation May Increase Risk of Pancreatic Cancer Development

Scientists who studied a highly cancer-prone single family have identified a rare, inherited gene mutation that may raise the lifetime risk of pancreatic and other cancers. Their findings were published by Nissim et al in Nature Genetics. The discovery of the previously unknown mutation could lead ...

immunotherapy

Immune-Related Adverse Events Requiring Hospitalization in Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

In a single-center analysis reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Balaji et al found that immune-related adverse events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment often require hospitalization and multidisciplinary management. The study involved data from patients who had...

issues in oncology

Outcomes Among Older HIV-Positive Patients With Cancer in the United States

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Coghill et al found that outcomes are often worse among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients aged 65 years or older with cancer vs HIV-negative patients with cancer, after adjustment for the first courses of treatment. In the study,...

lung cancer

Addition of Cediranib to Cisplatin/Pemetrexed in Chemotherapy-Naive Unresectable Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

In the phase II SWOG S0905 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Tsao et al found that the addition of the epidermal growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor cediranib to cisplatin/pemetrexed was associated with limited benefit and greater toxicity...

hepatobiliary cancer

Outcomes in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease–Associated HCC

A recent study has found that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease–associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with greater surgical morbidity and postresection liver failure, but long-term survival was better than in non–nonalcoholic fatty liver disease etiologies. These...

issues in oncology
survivorship

Access to Care and Quality of Life Among Sexual Minority Cancer Survivors

In a study published by Boehmer et al in Cancer, researchers found access to care among sexual minority cancer survivors was lacking. Moreover, sexual minority women with poor access to care, in particular, had a worse quality of life. Methods Researchers performed a secondary analysis of 4...

solid tumors

Pazopanib or Methotrexate/Vinblastine in Progressive Desmoid Tumors

In the French Sarcoma Group noncomparative phase II DESMOPAZ trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Toulmonde et al found that the oral vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor pazopanib was active in adult patients with progressive desmoid tumors. As noted by the investigators, ...

cns cancers

Response- and Biology-Based Therapy for Pediatric Intermediate-Risk Neuroblastoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Twist et al, use of reduced therapy for subsets of pediatric patients with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma in the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) study ANBL0531 did not affect the excellent overall survival rates observed in prior COG studies ...

pancreatic cancer

USPSTF Recommendation on Screening for Pancreatic Cancer in Asymptomatic Adults

As reported in JAMA, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), in a reaffirmation of its 2004 recommendation, has recommended against screening for pancreatic cancer in asymptomatic adults (a grade D recommendation). In developing the current recommendation, the USPSTF reviewed...

breast cancer

Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis for Detection of Residual Disease in Breast Cancer

Researchers have developed a new method for tracking residual disease in patients with breast cancer that could one day help doctors better tailor treatments and prevent unnecessary surgeries for some people with the disease. Findings were published by McDonald et al in Science Translational...

hematologic malignancies

First-Degree Familial Risk in Blood Cancer Development

New data suggest that people who have a parent, sibling, or child with blood cancer have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with a hematologic malignancy themselves. A study by Sud et al published in Blood offers the first...

skin cancer

Can Genetic Counseling and Test Reporting in Patients Susceptible to Melanoma Development Change Behavior?

A new study published by Stump et al in Genetics in Medicine investigated whether genetic testing would motivate people at risk of developing melanoma to alter their behavior in order to reduce their risk. “We are trying to understand whether a genetic test result adds value over and above...

prostate cancer

Comparison of Scans for Detection of Early Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer After Prostatectomy

In a single-center study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Calais et al found that the use of gallium Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen-11 positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PSMA PET/CT) resulted in higher detection rates of early biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after ...

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