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solid tumors
issues in oncology

Genome-Based Model for Adjusting Radiotherapy Dose Shows Promise

In a retrospective cohort–based study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Scott et al found that individual patient genomic-adjusted radiation dose was associated with outcomes across different cancer types. Study Details In the study, gene-expression–based radiation-sensitivity index...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies
skin cancer

SITC 2016: Phase I/II Data Combining Urelumab With Nivolumab Suggest Increased Antitumor Effect in Patients With Melanoma

Safety and efficacy data from a phase I/II study of urelumab in combination with nivolumab (Opdivo) in patients with hematologic and solid tumors, including biomarker analyses by level of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, was recently presented at the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer ...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies

ESMO 2016: Vemurafenib Shows Clinical Benefit in Diverse BRAF V600–Mutated Tumors

Findings from a phase II trial of vemurafenib in previously treated patients with advanced disease and BRAF-mutated tumors indicate that the drug is effective in patients with diverse BRAF V600­–mutated tumors but not in patients with BRAF non-V600 mutations. After a mean treatment...

solid tumors
palliative care

Philippe Rochigneux, MD, on Solid Tumors: Use of Chemotherapy Near End of Life (French Language Version)

Philippe Rochigneux, MD, of the Paoli Calmettes Institute, Marseille Cancer Center, discusses in French his findings on the high rates of chemotherapy used at the end of life for metastatic solid cancer, especially in young patients treated in high-volume centers without a palliative care unit. (Abstract 1300O)

solid tumors
palliative care

Philippe Rochigneux, MD, on Solid Tumors: Use of Chemotherapy Near the End of Life

Philippe Rochigneux, MD, of the Paoli Calmettes Institute, Marseille Cancer Center, discusses his findings on the high rates of chemotherapy used at the end of life for metastatic solid cancer, especially in young patients treated in high-volume centers without a palliative care unit. (Abstract 1300O)

genomics/genetics
solid tumors

Janessa J. Laskin, MD, on Tumor Gene Expression and Advanced Cancers

Janessa J. Laskin, MD, of the British Columbia Cancer Agency, discusses the ways in which availability of tumor gene expression data facilitates clinical decision-making for patients with advanced cancers. (Abstract 1519O)

solid tumors
symptom management

Study Finds Pneumonitis Associated With Anti–PD-1/PD-L1 Antibody Treatment

In a two-institution experience reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Naidoo et al identified the incidence of pneumonitis occurring in patients receiving anti–PD-1/PD-L1 (programmed cell death protein 1/ligand 1) monoclonal antibody as monotherapy or combined with anticytotoxic...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

CDC Finds Cancer Death Rates Among Children and Adolescents Declined by 20%, With Brain Cancer Topping Leukemia as Leading Cause of Death

New findings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that the cancer death rate for children and adolescents aged 1 to 19 has been steadily declining since the mid-1970s and dropped by 20% from 1999 to 2014, the result of advances in therapy, especially for leukemia. During...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Breast Density and Risk Factors May Be Useful for Tailoring Breast Cancer Screening for Older Women

A collaborative modeling study evaluating outcomes for various screening intervals for women over the age of 50 based on breast density and risk for breast cancer has found that average-risk women with low breast density undergoing triennial screening and higher-risk women with high breast density...

solid tumors
gynecologic cancer

CA-125 Tests and CT Scans Still Routinely Used for Surveillance in Ovarian Cancer, Yet Benefit Remains Unproved

As reported by Esselen et al in JAMA Oncology, cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) tests and computed tomography (CT) scans for surveillance in women with ovarian cancer continue to be used routinely, although their benefit has not been proven and the practices have significant quality-of-life and economic ...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Insurance Status Impacts Survival, According to Two New Studies

Men with testicular cancer who were uninsured or on Medicaid had a higher risk of death from what is normally a curable disease than insured patients, a new study found. The findings, published by Markt et al in Cancer, add to growing evidence that differences in health insurance status can affect...

solid tumors
head and neck cancer

Genetic Characteristics of Recurrent and Metastatic Head and Neck Cancers

Next-generation sequencing of recurrent or metastatic head and neck tumors at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) has provided insight into the molecular characteristics of these tumors, which may aid in the implementation of precision treatment. Morris et al reported these findings in...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

High-Intensity Local Treatment May Improve Survival in Patients With Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

In a National Cancer Data Base analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Seisen et al found that high-intensity local treatment was associated with an overall survival benefit in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Study Details The study included data from...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Increased Obesity Rates Reported in Adults With a History of Cancer

In a population-based study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Greenlee et al found that rates of obesity have increased more in patients with a history of cancer than in the general population. These rates were particularly high among survivors of colorectal and breast cancers and black ...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Neoadjuvant Veliparib/Carboplatin and Neratinib ‘Graduate’ From Adaptive Randomization I-SPY 2 Trial in Early Breast Cancer

As reported by Rugo et al and Park et al in The New England Journal of Medicine, the adaptive randomization phase II I-SPY 2 trial has shown that the addition of veliparib/carboplatin and the addition of neratinib to standard neoadjuvant therapy have met criteria predictive of success in a phase...

solid tumors
lung cancer

Ceritinib Shows Overall and Intracranial Activity in Advanced NSCLC Previously Treated With Crizotinib and Chemotherapy

Crinò et al found that ceritinib (Zykadia) was active overall and in central nervous system (CNS) metastases in patients with ALK-rearranged advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with crizotinib (Xalkori) and chemotherapy, according to the ASCEND-2 phase II...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Meta-analysis Indicates Similar Outcomes With Neoadjuvant Endocrine vs Chemotherapy in Estrogen Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer

In a meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Spring et al found that neoadjuvant endocrine therapy was associated with outcomes similar to those with chemotherapy in women with estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer. Similar Outcomes The analysis included 3,490 patients from 20...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Study Finds Wide Variation in Breast Density Assessments Among Radiologists

A large observational study examining the variation in breast density assessment among radiologists in clinical practice has found a wide variation—from 6.3% to 84.5%—in the percentage of mammograms rated as showing dense breasts, which persisted after adjusting for patient...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

No Survival Benefit for Cabozantinib Reported in Previously Treated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Smith et al found no improvement in overall survival with cabozantinib (Cometriq) vs prednisone in patients with previously treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, in the phase III COMET-1 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Cabozantinib, which inhibits MET, VEGF...

solid tumors
gastroesophageal cancer

Comparison of Chemotherapy Regimens in Metastatic Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

FOLFOX (oxaliplatin, leucovorin, fluorouracil [5-FU]) seems to be a safer and more reliable regimen than ECF (epirubicin, cisplatin, 5-FU) and irinotecan/cisplatin as a backbone for treatment in future studies of metastatic esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancers. This finding from the...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese People May Lower Levels of Certain Proteins Linked to Cancer

A new study investigating the effects of dietary weight loss and exercise on circulating levels of certain angiogenesis-related proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), in postmenopausal...

solid tumors
sarcoma

French Phase III Trial Shows No Benefit of Adding Zoledronate to Chemotherapy and Surgery in Osteosarcoma

In the French phase III OS2006 trial reported by Piperno-Neumann et al in The Lancet Oncology, the addition of zoledronate to chemotherapy and surgery provided no event-free survival benefit in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma. Study Details In the open-label ...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Adherence to Cancer Prevention Guidelines on Diet and Physical Activity May Reduce Cancer Risk and Mortality

According to the American Cancer Society’s 2016 Cancer Facts & Figures, behaviors such as poor diet choices, physical inactivity, excess alcohol consumption, and unhealthy body weight account for about 20% of all cancers diagnosed in the United States and likely could be prevented with...

solid tumors
bladder cancer

Is Anti–PD-L1 Antibody Durvalumab Active in Advanced Urothelial Bladder Cancer?

In a phase I/II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Massard et al found that the anti–PD-L1 (programmed cell death ligand 1) antibody durvalumab was active in patients with previously treated advanced urothelial bladder cancer. Objective response appeared to be confined to...

solid tumors
kidney cancer

Improved Quality of Life Reported With Nivolumab vs Everolimus in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

Patients with previously treated advanced renal cell carcinoma receiving nivolumab (Opdivo) in the phase III CheckMate 025 trial had improved health-related quality of life compared with those receiving everolimus (Afinitor), as reported by Cella et al in The Lancet Oncology. Study Details In the ...

solid tumors
head and neck cancer

Study Finds Pembrolizumab Active in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

As reported by Seiwert et al in The Lancet Oncology, the monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab (Keytruda) showed activity in patients with programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)–positive recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in the phase Ib KEYNOTE-012 study. Study ...

colorectal cancer
solid tumors

Norwegian Study Shows Benefit of Aspirin as Secondary Prevention in Patients With Colorectal Cancer

A Norwegian population-based study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Bains et al showed that use of aspirin after diagnosis of colorectal cancer was associated with improved colorectal cancer–specific survival. Study Details In the population-based retrospective cohort study,...

solid tumors
pancreatic cancer

ASCO Releases Clinical Practice Guideline on Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Davendra P. Sohal, MD, MPH, of Cleveland Clinic, and colleagues, ASCO has released a clinical practice guideline on the treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Recommendations are based on expert panel systematic review of the...

solid tumors
pancreatic cancer

ASCO Releases Clinical Practice Guideline on Treatment of Locally Advanced, Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

As reported by Edward P. Balaban, DO, of Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, ASCO has released a clinical practice guideline on the treatment of locally advanced, unresectable pancreatic cancer. The recommendations are based on expert panel...

solid tumors
pancreatic cancer

ASCO Releases Clinical Practice Guideline on Treatment of Potentially Curable Pancreatic Cancer

ASCO has released a clinical practice guideline on the treatment of potentially curable pancreatic cancer, as reported by Alok A. Khorana, MD, of Cleveland Clinic, and colleagues, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. The recommendations are based on expert panel systematic review of the literature...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Prognostic Impact of Recurrence Score and Estrogen Receptor Expression in Breast Cancer After 5 Years of Tamoxifen

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Wolmark et al, higher 21-gene recurrence score (RS) was strongly predictive of late disease recurrence among patients with high quantitative estrogen-receptor expression (ESR1) receiving tamoxifen for 5 years in two NRG Oncology/NSABP (National...

solid tumors
gynecologic cancer

Study Finds Apparent Benefit of Adding Fosbretabulin to Bevacizumab in Recurrent Ovarian, Tubal, or Peritoneal Carcinoma

Adding the vascular-disrupting agent fosbretabulin to bevacizumab (Avastin) improved outcomes in patients with recurrent ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma, according to a randomized phase II NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Monk et...

solid tumors

John D. Hainsworth, MD, on Advanced Solid Tumors: Results From the MyPathway Trial

John D. Hainsworth, MD, of the Sarah Cannon Research Institute, discusses early findings from this umbrella basket study on targeted treatment, outside of current drug indications, for different types of advanced solid tumors (Abstract LBA11511).

breast cancer
solid tumors

Poorer Adherence to Endocrine Treatment Associated With Poorer Outcome in Postmenopausal Hormone Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer

In an analysis of the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Chirgwin et al found that poorer adherence to endocrine therapy was associated with poorer disease-free survival in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer ...

cns cancers
solid tumors

Retroviral Replicating Vector That Delivers Cytosine Deaminase to Cancer Cells Active in Recurrent Glioblastoma

A phase I study by Cloughesy et al published in Science Translational Medicine investigating the effectiveness of vocimagene amiretrorepvec (Toca 511), an experimental nonlytic, retroviral replicating vector that delivers cytosine deaminase to cancer cells, and an investigational...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Early Lapatinib-Related Rash Associated With Improved Outcome in Breast Cancer

An analysis of the phase III adjuvant ALTTO trial showed that early rash was associated with better clinical outcome with lapatinib (Tykerb) treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer, as reported by Sonnenblick et al in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. It had been previously found that...

breast cancer
solid tumors
issues in oncology

Racial Disparities in Early Supportive Medication Use and End-of-Life Care Among Medicare Patients With Stage IV Breast Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Check et al identified disparities in supportive medication use and end-of-life care between black and white Medicare patients with stage IV breast cancer. Study Details The study involved SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End...

solid tumors
pancreatic cancer

Prolonged Survival Reported With First-Line FOLFIRINOX in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

First-line FOLFIRINOX (leucovorin, fluorouracil, irinotecan, oxaliplatin) is associated with median overall survival of approximately 2 years in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer, according to a systematic review and patient-level meta-analysis reported by Suker et al in The Lancet...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Study Finds No Benefit of Adding Pictilisib to Fulvestrant in Aromatase Inhibitor–Resistant Breast Cancer

Adding the PI3K inhibitor pictilisib to fulvestrant (Faslodex) did not improve progression-free survival in women with estrogen receptor–positive, HER2-negative, aromatase inhibitor–resistant advanced breast cancer, according to the phase II FERGI trial reported in The Lancet Oncology...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Physician Recommendation May Influence Racial Disparity in BRCA1/2 Testing in Women With Breast Cancer

A disparity in BRCA1/2 testing between white and black women was influenced by patient-reported physician recommendation, in a population-based study reported by McCarthy et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Study Details The study involved data from 3,016 women (69% white, 31% black) in...

solid tumors
sarcoma

Outcomes With Palbociclib at Altered Dose and Schedule in Liposarcoma

In a single-center phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Dickson et al found that changing the dose and schedule of palbociclib (Ibrance) from those in a previous phase II trial appeared to maintain activity while potentially reducing hematologic adverse effects in patients with advanced...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Adding Bevacizumab to Letrozole Improves Progression-Free Survival but Increases Toxicity in Metastatic Breast Cancer

The addition of bevacizumab (Avastin) to first-line endocrine therapy with letrozole improved progression-free survival but increased toxicity among postmenopausal women with hormone receptor–positive metastatic breast cancer, according to the results of the phase III CALGB 40503/Alliance...

solid tumors
lymphoma
multiple myeloma

Relatives of Patients With Carcinoma of Unknown Primary at Increased Risk for This and Other Cancers

Relatives of patients with carcinoma of unknown primary are at increased risk of developing it themselves as well as several other malignant neoplasms, including lung, pancreatic, and colon cancers; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; and myeloma, according to a study published in JAMA Oncology. “Some of...

solid tumors
hematologic malignancies
issues in oncology
survivorship

Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Survivors of Some Adult-Onset Cancers

In a study using managed-care organization data reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Armenian et al found that survivors of adult-onset multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lung/bronchus cancer, and breast cancer had an increased risk for subsequent cardiovascular disease. Study...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Neoadjuvant Nab-Paclitaxel Improves Pathologic Complete Response Rate vs Solvent-Based Paclitaxel in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

In the phase III GeparSepto-GBG 69 trial, reported in The Lancet Oncology by Untch et al, neoadjuvant nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane) improved pathologic complete response rate vs conventional solvent-based paclitaxel in women with early-stage breast cancer. Study Details In the open-label trial, 1,206 ...

solid tumors
prostate cancer

Survival Differs With Metastatic Site in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Overall survival differed according to the site of metastases in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer, according to a meta-analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Halabi et al. Study Details The study involved data from 8,820 men who received docetaxel chemotherapy in...

solid tumors
kidney cancer

Study Finds Apitolisib Less Effective Than Everolimus in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Powles et al, the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor apitolisib was inferior to the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (Afinitor) in progression-free survival in a phase II trial in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma progressing on or after...

breast cancer
solid tumors

Neratinib Improves Invasive Disease–Free Survival After Trastuzumab-Based Therapy in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

Chan et al found that 1 year of treatment with the HER1, 2, and 4 tyrosine kinase inhibitor neratinib improved invasive disease–free survival vs placebo after trastuzumab (Herceptin)-based adjuvant therapy in patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer, in the phase III ExteNET...

colorectal cancer
solid tumors

Poorer Outcome With BRAF and KRAS Mutations in Microsatellite-Stable but Not Microsatellite-Unstable Colon Cancer

In an analysis of the PETACC-8 trial reported by Taieb et al in JAMA Oncology, BRAF V600 and KRAS mutations were associated with shorter disease-free and overall survival in patients with microsatellite-stable colon cancer—but not in those with tumors with microsatellite instability—in...

solid tumors

Increased Cancer Mortality Among Recipients of Solid-Organ Transplants

Solid-organ transplant recipients have a higher rate of cancer mortality than that expected in the general population, according to a Canadian study published in JAMA Oncology. Cancer mortality among transplant recipients “was significantly elevated compared with the Ontario population,” with a...


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