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cns cancers

Revisions to the International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria

A consensus statement from a National Cancer Institute–sponsored clinical trials planning meeting, reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Park et al, presents revisions to the International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria (INRC) for assessing treatment response in patients with...

cns cancers

AANS 2017: Seizure Outcome After Surgical Resection of Insular Glioma

Winner of the Journal of Neuro-Oncology Award sponsored by Kluwer Academic Publishers, Doris Du Wang, MD, PhD, a resident in the Department of Neurological Surgery at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF), presented her research on seizure outcome after surgical resection of insular...

cns cancers

AANS 2017: Genetic Underpinnings of Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma/Astrocytoma

Winner of the American Brain Tumor Association Young Investigator Award Anthony C. Wang, MD, a neurosurgeon at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Mattel Children’s Hospital and the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, presented his research findings on desmoplastic infantile...

cns cancers

Study Finds Vaccine-Chemotherapy Combination Prolongs Overall Survival in Glioblastoma

Despite highly aggressive therapy that includes maximal tumor resection, high-dose radiation, and temozolomide chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma is dismal, with a median survival of less than 15 months, prompting researchers to study novel approaches to...

cns cancers

Potential Therapeutic Target for Malignant Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors Identified in Preclinical Study

Using state-of-the-art gene-editing technology, scientists from Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago have discovered a promising target to treat atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, a highly aggressive and therapy-resistant brain tumor that mostly occurs in infants. They found...

cns cancers

AACR 2017: Addition of TTFields to Temozolomide Treatment Improves Survival for Patients With Glioblastoma

Patients with glioblastoma who wore a medical device that delivers alternating electrical fields in addition to being treated with the chemotherapeutic temozolomide had significantly improved median overall survival compared with those treated with temozolomide only, according to final results from ...

cns cancers

Adding Temozolomide to Short-Course Radiotherapy in Older Patients With Glioblastoma

In a phase III trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Perry et al found that adding temozolomide to short-course radiotherapy improved overall survival in patients aged ≥ 65 years with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The survival advantage was largest among patients with methylated ...

cns cancers

Busulfan and Melphalan vs Carboplatin, Etoposide, and Melphalan in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

In a phase III trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Ladenstein et al found that high-dose chemotherapy with busulfan and melphalan vs carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan was associated with an improved event-free survival in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma and adequate disease response to ...

cns cancers

Key Gene Controlling Tumor Growth in Gliomas Pinpointed

Cedars-Sinai investigators have identified a stem cell–regulating gene that affects tumor growth in patients with brain cancer and can strongly influence survival rates of patients. The findings, published by Edwards et al in Nature Scientific Reports, could move physicians closer to their...

cns cancers

Study Finds No Evidence of Cytomegalovirus in Glioblastoma and Other High-Grade Gliomas

In a rigorous study of tumor tissue collected from 125 patients with aggressive brain cancers, researchers at Johns Hopkins said they have found no evidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and concluded that a link between the two diseases, as claimed by earlier reports, likely does not exist. A ...

cns cancers

Holger N. Lode, MD: Neuroblastoma Survival Update (German Language Version)

Holger N. Lode, MD, of the University of Greifswald, discusses in German the survival of neuroblastoma patients treated with long-term infusion of the anti-GD2 antibody ch14.18/CHO and killer-cell Ig-like receptor genotypes and Fc-receptor polymorphisms. (Abstract 111)

cns cancers

Holger N. Lode, MD: Neuroblastoma Survival Update

Holger N. Lode, MD, of the University of Greifswald, discusses the survival of neuroblastoma patients treated with long-term infusion of the anti-GD2 antibody ch14.18/CHO and killer-cell Ig-like receptor genotypes and Fc-receptor polymorphisms. (Abstract 111)

cns cancers
sarcoma

Combination of Alisertib and HSV1716 Shows Antitumor Activity in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor and Neuroblastoma Models

Two investigational agents, the aurora A kinase inhibitor alisertib and a virus derived from HSV-1 (HSV1716), have shown antitumor efficacy in early clinical trials as monotherapies. A new study published by Currier et al in Oncotarget, however, demonstrates that the combined usage...

cns cancers

New Molecular-Based Prognostic Model for Glioblastoma in Temozolomide Era

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Bell et al derived a molecular-based recursive partitioning analysis model for overall survival in glioblastoma multiforme in the temozolomide era with the aim of refining existing clinically based models. Study Details The study involved analysis of 452...

cns cancers

Precision Medicine Analysis of 203 Pediatric Brain Tumors May Advance Diagnosis and Treatment

Precision medicine has advanced to the point where it can now impact the care of a majority of children with brain tumors, a new study by investigators at Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center suggests. In the largest clinical study to date of genetic abnormalities in...

cns cancers

Case Report of Regression of Glioblastoma After Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy

In a brief report in The New England Journal of Medicine, Brown et al described regression of glioblastoma after chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. A 50-year-old patient with recurrent multifocal glioblastoma after tumor resection, radiation therapy, and temozolomide was treated with...

cns cancers

ASCO Endorses ASTRO Guideline on Radiation Therapy for Glioblastoma

As reported by Erik P. Sulman, MD, PhD, of MD Anderson Cancer Center, and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, ASCO has endorsed the 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) evidence-based guideline on radiation therapy for glioblastoma. The endorsement was based on review of ...

cns cancers
gastrointestinal cancer

EORTC-NCI-AACR 2016: ‘Remarkable Antitumor Activity’ in Phase I Studies of PDGFRα and KIT Mutation Inhibitors

Two studies at the 28th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Munich, Germany focused on the inhibition of mutations in the KIT and PDGFRα oncogenes. These genes provide instructions for making proteins that are part of a family of proteins called receptor...

cns cancers

Association of Extent of Surgeon-Assessed Resection on Outcome in High-Risk Neuroblastoma

In an analysis of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma from the Children’s Oncology Group A3973 study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, von Allmen et al found that surgeon-assessed resection of at least 90% was associated with improved event-free survival and a reduced cumulative ...

cns cancers

Activation of WNT5A May Drive Glioblastoma Stem Cell Differentiation and Invasive Growth

Glioblastoma multiforme remains the most common and highly lethal brain cancer, known for its tendency to recur. Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have identified a pathway by which cancer cells aggressively spread and grow in the brain, opening up new possibilities...

cns cancers

‘Exceptional Response’ to First-Line Vismodegib Reported in Patient With Unresectable/Multifocal Adult Medulloblastoma

In a case report in Cancer Biology & Therapy, Lou et al described an exceptional response to first-line treatment with the hedgehog inhibitor vismodegib (Erivedge) in a 51-year-old patient with a history of basal cell carcinoma who was diagnosed with an unresectable/multifocal form of adult...

cns cancers

Dutch Study Shows High Prevalence of Early Endocrine Disorders in Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors

Clement et al found that 25% of survivors of childhood brain tumors were diagnosed with endocrine disorders over 6.6 years of follow-up, based on a Dutch nationwide study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. The study involved data from 718 survivors diagnosed at age ≤ 18 years with a...

cns cancers

Temozolomide vs Radiotherapy in High-Risk Low-Grade Glioma

In the phase III EORTC (European Organisation for Research and Treatment) 22033-26033 intergroup trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Baumert et al found no progression-free survival difference between temozolomide chemotherapy and radiotherapy alone in patients with high-risk low-grade glioma....

cns cancers

ASTRO 2016: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Decreases Rate of Postoperative Local Recurrence for Brain Metastases

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for cancer patients who receive the treatment for brain metastases decreases the likelihood of local recurrence, but shows no positive difference in terms of overall survival or distant brain metastases rates when compared to observation alone following surgical...

cns cancers

ASTRO 2016: Reduced Radiation Boost Volume Recommended for Average-Risk Pediatric Medulloblastoma, but Craniospinal Axis Dose Remains Unchanged

In the largest trial conducted for average-risk medulloblastoma, survival rates following reduced radiation therapy boost volumes were comparable to standard treatment volumes for the primary tumor site, but lower doses of craniospinal axis irradiation were associated with higher event rates and...

cns cancers

ASTRO 2016: Postoperative Stereotactic Radiosurgery: New Standard of Care for Patients With Resected Brain Metastases?

For patients who have cancer that has metastasized to the brain, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) results in statistically comparable survival rates, reduced cognitive decline, and better quality of life, compared to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), according to research presented at the 58th Annual ...

cns cancers
lung cancer

Little Benefit Reported With WBRT in NSCLC Patients With Brain Metastases Unsuitable for Resection or Stereotactic Radiotherapy

In a UK-based phase III noninferiority trial (QUARTZ) reported in The Lancet, Mulvenna et al found that use of whole-brain radiotherapy in addition to optimal supportive care including dexamethasone was associated with little additional benefit in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients...

cns cancers

Is Weekly Vinblastine Active in Chemotherapy-Naive Children With Progressive Low-Grade Glioma?

In a phase II Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lassaletta et al found that vinblastine monotherapy was associated with response or stable disease in most children with chemotherapy-naive low-grade glioma. Vinblastine monotherapy has shown ...

cns cancers

Effect of Radiosurgery Alone vs Radiosurgery Plus WBRT on Cognitive Function in Patients With Brain Metastases

Physicians from Carolinas HealthCare System's Neurosciences Institute and Levine Cancer Institute are among the authors of a study published by Brown et al in JAMA. The study showed how among patients with one to three brain metastases, the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone, compared...

cns cancers

Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid for D-2-Hydroxyglutarate May Detect Malignant Brain Tumors Nonsurgically

When a brain tumor is suspected, its presence is usually confirmed by anatomic imaging such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). But through imaging, not much about the tumor molecularly can be learned. Surgery and a biopsy are necessary to get a glimpse of the cancer...

cns cancers

Julie R. Park, MD, on Neuroblastoma: Results of a Children’s Oncology Group Study

Julie R. Park, MD, of Seattle Children’s Hospital, discusses findings from this phase III trial of tandem myeloablative autologous stem cell transplant using peripheral blood stem cell as consolidation therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma (Abstract LBA3).

cns cancers

James R. Perry, MD, on Glioblastoma: Study Results on Treating Elderly Patients

James R. Perry, MD, of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, discusses findings of a phase III trial of short-course radiotherapy with or without concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide in older patients with this tumor (Abstract LBA2).

cns cancers

ASCO 2016: Tandem Autologous Stem-Cell Transplant Improves Outcomes for Children With High-Risk Neuroblastoma

Historically, less than 50% of children with high-risk neuroblastoma live 5 or more years after diagnosis. A National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded phase III trial performed by the Children’s Oncology Group found that adding a second autologous stem-cell transplant to standard therapy...

cns cancers

ASCO 2016: Temozolomide Chemotherapy Plus Short-Course Radiotherapy Improves Survival in Elderly Patients With Glioblastoma

A Canadian-led randomized phase III trial found that adding temozolomide chemotherapy during short-course radiation therapy, followed by monthly maintenance doses of temozolomide, significantly improved survival of elderly patients with glioblastoma, reducing the risk of death by 33%. These data...

cns cancers

Martin J. Van Den Bent, MD, PhD, on Anaplastic Glioma: Results from the CATNON Trial

Martin J. Van Den Bent, MD, PhD, of the Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, discusses the interim analysis of the EORTC phase III study on concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide in anaplastic glioma without 1p/19q co-deletion (Abstract LBA2000).

cns cancers
solid tumors

Retroviral Replicating Vector That Delivers Cytosine Deaminase to Cancer Cells Active in Recurrent Glioblastoma

A phase I study by Cloughesy et al published in Science Translational Medicine investigating the effectiveness of vocimagene amiretrorepvec (Toca 511), an experimental nonlytic, retroviral replicating vector that delivers cytosine deaminase to cancer cells, and an investigational...

cns cancers

Play-Based Procedural Preparation May Aid Children Undergoing Cranial Radiation Therapy

Play-based procedural preparation not only helps children cope with the stress and anxiety of radiation therapy, but can also help reduce the amount of sedation used and cut costs, according to a study from the Child Life Program at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. The study was...

cns cancers

Clinically Relevant Mutations Identified Through Sequencing of Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients With CNS Cancers

Next-generation sequencing identified clinically relevant somatic alterations in cancer-associated genes in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with central nervous system (CNS) cancers, according to a report by Pentsova et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Somatic Alterations The study...

cns cancers

Study Explores Differential Localization of Glioblastoma Subtypes and Pathogenesis

Researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine have demonstrated that distinct types of glioblastoma tend to develop in different regions of the brain. This finding provides an explanation for how the same cancer-causing mutation can give rise to different types of brain...

cns cancers

KIR3DL1 and HLA-B Allele Combinations May Impact Response to Treatment in Neuroblastoma

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Forlenza et al found that noninteracting KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtypes were associated with better response to anti-GD2 antibody treatment in neuroblastoma. Study Details Treatment of neuroblastoma with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (eg, the...

cns cancers

Improved Overall Survival With Addition of Chemotherapy to Radiation in Low-Grade Glioma

The addition of chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine to radiotherapy significantly prolonged overall survival in patients with low-grade glioma, according to the final results of the phase III RTOG 9802 trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Buckner et al. A...

cns cancers

Louis Burt Nabors, MD, on Primary and Recurrent Gliomas: Notable Developments in Management

Louis Burt Nabors, MD, of the University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center, discusses improvements in the 2016 NCCN Guidelines for glioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and glioblastoma.

cns cancers

Glioblastoma Multiforme With Mismatch Repair Deficiency May Be Target for Immune Checkpoint Inhibition

Glioblastoma multiforme resulting from germline biallelic mismatch repair deficiency was characterized by hypermutation and elevated neoantigen load—characteristics associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in other settings—according to a study reported in the Journal of ...

cns cancers

Finnish Study Identifies Increased Cancer Risks in Patients With Neurofibromatosis Type 1

In a Finnish study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Uusitalo et al found that patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) were at increased risk of other cancers in addition to nervous system disease. The study included data from a population-based series of patients with...

cns cancers

Alisertib Shows Activity With Irinotecan/Temozolomide in Relapsed or Refractory Neuroblastoma

The oral Aurora A kinase inhibitor alisertib was active in combination with irinotecan/temozolomide in patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma, in a phase I dose-escalation trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by DuBois et al. The maximum tolerated dose of alisertib was 60...

cns cancers

Combination Therapy May Be Better Than Radiotherapy Alone to Treat Aggressive Brain Cancer, According to Early Study

Radiotherapy effectively damages brain tumors, but the cancer cells can repair themselves in order to live on. Now, researchers at Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University have tested a strategy that combines radiotherapy with a drug that shuts down the ability of tumor to mend...

cns cancers

Hyperthermic Laser Surgery Disrupts Blood-Brain-Barrier in Glioblastoma, Opening Path for Chemotherapy

Neurosurgeons at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis used hyperthermic laser ablation to shrink tumors in patients with recurrent glioblastoma and noted a temporary disruption of the blood-brain barrier, thereby enabling them to deliver chemotherapy to the peritumoral region....

cns cancers

Two Forms of Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases Are Equally Effective

While two advanced radiosurgery approaches—Gamma Knife and RapidArc—offer different strengths, they are equally effective at eradicating cancer in the brain, say researchers at Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson. Their study, published by Liu et al in Frontiers in Oncology,...

cns cancers

Malignant Brain Tumors Most Common Cause of Cancer Deaths in Adolescents and Young Adults

A new report published by Ostrom et al in the journal Neuro-Oncology sponsored by the American Brain Tumor Association (ABTA) found that malignant brain tumors are the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 39, and the most common cancer occurring...

cns cancers

Single-Center Study Evaluates Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Medulloblastoma

In a phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology by Yock et al, use of proton radiotherapy for pediatric medulloblastoma was associated with acceptable long-term toxic effects and good survival outcomes. Study Details In the study, 59 patients aged 3 to 21 years were treated at...

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