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breast cancer
immunotherapy

Trastuzumab Deruxtecan in HER2-Low–Expressing, Previously Treated Advanced Breast Cancer

In a phase Ib study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Shanu Modi, MD, and colleagues found that the antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab deruxtecan was active in HER2-low–expressing, previously treated advanced breast cancer. The drug component is a topoisomerase I inhibitor. The agent...

issues in oncology
survivorship

Models for Predicting Acute Ovarian Failure in Survivors of Childhood Cancer

As reported in The Lancet Oncology, Clark et al have developed radiation dosimetric models that can be used to predict the risk of acute ovarian failure in female survivors of childhood cancer. Study Details The cohort study involved 5,886 eligible 5-year survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor ...

solid tumors

Treating Typical Solitary Fibrous Tumor With a Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor

In a European phase II trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Martin-Broto et al found that pazopanib showed activity in patients with typical solitary fibrous tumors. The investigators previously reported findings with pazopanib treatment in a cohort of patients in the trial with advanced...

issues in oncology

Hippocampal Avoidance During Whole-Brain Radiotherapy: Effects on Cognitive Function

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Brown et al, the phase III NRG Oncology CC001 trial has shown superior cognitive function outcomes with hippocampal avoidance using intensity-modulated radiotherapy during whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for the treatment of adult patients with...

breast cancer

Addition of Capivasertib to Fulvestrant in Advanced ER-Positive Breast Cancer After Relapse or Disease Progression With Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment

In the phase II FAKTION trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Jones et al found that the addition of the AKT inhibitor capivasertib to endocrine therapy with fulvestrant prolonged progression-free survival in postmenopausal women with aromatase inhibitor–resistant, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, ...

issues in oncology
survivorship

Late Mortality and Chronic Health Conditions in Long-Term Survivors of AYA Cancers

A retrospective analysis from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, reported in The Lancet Oncology by Eugene Suh, MD, and colleagues, showed that as with survivors of childhood cancers, survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers are at increased risk of earlier mortality and chronic...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Patient-Reported Outcomes With Addition of Pembrolizumab vs Placebo to Pemetrexed/Platinum for Nonsquamous NSCLC

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Marina C. Garassino, MD, and colleagues, global health status/quality of life was maintained or improved with the addition of pembrolizumab vs placebo to pemetrexed/platinum therapy for previously untreated metastatic nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Long-Term Outcomes With PD-1 Inhibitor Treatment and Response to Retreatment in Advanced Melanoma

In a single-center study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Allison Betof Warner, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that approximately three-quarters of patients with advanced melanoma achieving a complete response on programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor therapy were alive...

immunotherapy
bladder cancer

Pembrolizumab for BCG-Unresponsive, High-Risk Non–Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

On January 8, 2020, pembrolizumab was approved for treatment of patients with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-unresponsive, high-risk, non–muscle invasive bladder cancer with carcinoma in situ with or without papillary tumors who are ineligible for or have elected not to undergo cystectomy.1,2...

prostate cancer

HSD3B1 Genotype and Its Effect on Castration Resistance and Overall Survival in Prostate Cancer

As reported in JAMA Oncology, Nima Sharifi, MD, and colleagues have found that the adrenal-permissive HSD3B1 genotype is associated with earlier onset of castration resistance and poorer overall survival in men with low-volume metastatic prostate cancer. As noted by the investigators, the...

lymphoma

Haploidentical Related Donor vs Unrelated Cord Blood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

In a retrospective analysis reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Fatobene et al found that nonmyeloablative haploidentical related donor cell transplantation was associated with better outcomes compared to unrelated cord blood hematopoietic transplantation in patients with Hodgkin and...

lung cancer

Osimertinib Plus Savolitinib for EGFR-Mutated, MET-Amplified NSCLC After Disease Progression on EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

As reported in The Lancet Oncology, Lecia V. Sequist, MD, and colleagues have found activity and an acceptable risk-benefit profile with the combination of the third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor osimertinib and the MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor savolitinib in patients with EGFR...

gynecologic cancers

Cervical Cancer Recurrence: Open vs Minimally Invasive Radical Hysterectomy

A multi-institutional retrospective study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Shitanshu Uppal, MBBS, and colleagues showed that minimally invasive radical hysterectomy was associated with a higher risk of disease recurrence vs open abdominal hysterectomy in women undergoing surgery for...

colorectal cancer
immunotherapy

Perioperative Chemotherapy With or Without Cetuximab in Patients With Resectable Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Bridgewater et al, the phase III New EPOC trial has shown that the addition of perioperative cetuximab to chemotherapy was associated with significantly poorer overall survival in patients with KRAS wild-type resectable colorectal cancer liver metastases. An...

breast cancer
immunotherapy

Addition of Pembrolizumab to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Early-Stage HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Rita Nanda, MD, and colleagues, findings from the ongoing phase II I-SPY 2 trial indicated that the addition of pembrolizumab to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy improved pathologic complete response rates in patients with high-risk stage II/III HER2-negative breast ...

hematologic malignancies
immunotherapy

Anti-CD19 CAR-NK Therapy in Relapsed or Refractory CD19-Positive Lymphoid Tumors

In a phase I/II trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Liu et al found that anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) natural killer (NK) cells produced rapid responses in patients with CD19-positive lymphoid tumors, without the toxicities associated with CAR T-cell therapy in this...

immunotherapy
symptom management

Immune-Related Adverse Events in Patients With Cancer Receiving Influenza Vaccination During Treatment With Pembrolizumab

In a study reported in JCO Oncology Practice, Failing et al found that influenza vaccination did not increase the incidence of immune-related adverse events among patients receiving pembrolizumab for various cancers. On multivariate analysis, influenza vaccination was associated with a...

breast cancer

Low-Fat Diets With Increased Vegetable, Fruit, and Grain Intake Linked to Reduced Risk of Breast Cancer Mortality in Postmenopausal Women

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Rowan T. Chlebowski, MD, PhD, and colleagues, 20-year follow-up of the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification trial has shown a maintained reduction in non–breast cancer-related mortality after breast cancer diagnosis and the emergence of a ...

head and neck cancer

Plasma Circulating Tumor HPV DNA for the Detection of Recurrent HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Bhishamjit S. Chera, MD, and colleagues found that surveillance for circulating tumor human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was accurate in identifying disease recurrence in patients with curatively treated HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell ...

lung cancer

IASLC Early Lung Imaging Confederation Initiative for Analysis of Low-Dose CT Images

As reported by James L. Mulshine, MD, and colleagues in JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) is developing the Early Lung Imaging Confederation (ELIC) “to serve as an open-source, international, universally accessible environment to...

colorectal cancer

Trifluridine/Tipiracil Plus Bevacizumab for Chemorefractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

In a Danish phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Per Pfeiffer, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that the addition of bevacizumab to trifluridine/tipiracil, also known as TAS-102, significantly improved progression-free survival among patients with chemorefractory metastatic colorectal...

gynecologic cancers

Modeling the Impact of HPV Vaccination and Cervical Screening on Cervical Cancer Elimination in Low-Income and Lower-Middle–Income Countries

In a modeling study reported in The Lancet, Brisson et al in the World Health Organization (WHO)-sponsored Cervical Cancer Elimination Modelling Consortium (CCEMC) found that high human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake in girls could lead to cervical cancer elimination in most low-income and...

bladder cancer

Enfortumab Vedotin in Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

In the phase I EV-101 trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Rosenberg et al found that the antibody-drug conjugate enfortumab vedotin had no maximum tolerated dose and was active in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma at the dose selected for phase II evaluation. The agent...

skin cancer

Biomarker Analysis in the COMBI-AD Trial of Adjuvant Dabrafenib Plus Trametinib in BRAF V600–Mutant Stage III Melanoma

In an exploratory biomarker analysis from the COMBI-AD trial, reported in The Lancet Oncology, Dummer et al found that tumor mutational burden (TMB) and interferon-gamma gene-signature profiles might be associated with an augmented benefit of adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib in resected BRAF...

lung cancer

Effect of Volume-Based CT Screening on Lung Cancer Mortality in High-Risk Patients

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Harry J. de Koning, MD, PhD, and colleagues, the Dutch/Belgian NELSON trial has shown a significant reduction in 10-year lung cancer mortality with volume-based low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening vs no screening in high-risk men. Male...

gynecologic cancers

Addition of Secondary Surgical Cytoreduction to Chemotherapy in Recurrent Platinum-Sensitive Ovarian Cancer

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Robert L. Coleman, MD, of MD Anderson Cancer Center, and colleagues, the phase III trial Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG)-0213 trial has shown no overall survival benefit with secondary surgical cytoreduction followed by chemotherapy with or...

leukemia

Dasatinib vs Imatinib in Pediatric Philadelphia Chromosome–Positive ALL

In a Chinese phase III trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Shen et al found that dasatinib was associated was superior event-free survival vs imatinib when combined with intensive chemotherapy in pediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome–positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) not receiving...

gastrointestinal cancer

Does Treating Individuals for H pylori Infection Reduce Gastric Cancer Risk in Those With a Family History of the Disease?

In a large Korean single-center study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Choi et al found that eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection was associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer in individuals with a family history of gastric cancer in first-degree relatives. As stated ...

KEYNOTE-158 Trial: Pembrolizumab Produces Durable Responses in Select Noncolorectal Tumors

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Aurelien Marabelle, MD, PhD, of Gustave Roussy, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Villejuif, and colleagues, the phase II KEYNOTE-158 trial has shown robust activity of pembrolizumab in patients with noncolorectal high...

sarcoma
immunotherapy

Immunotherapy Combination in Previously Treated Advanced Sarcoma

In a single-institution phase II study reported in JAMA Oncology, Kelly et al found that the combination of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) and pembrolizumab produced durable responses in patients with previously treated advanced sarcoma. As noted by the investigators, T-VEC has been found to...

skin cancer

Risk of CNS Metastasis in Patients With AJCC 8th Edition Stage III Melanoma

A study using data from two major melanoma centers in the United States and Australia, reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Haydu et al, has shown a 5-year cumulative incidence of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis of 15.8% among patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Pooled Analysis of Body Mass Index and Overall Survival With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in NSCLC

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Kichenadasse et al found that high body mass index was associated with improved overall survival in patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with atezolizumab. As noted by the investigators, there are data showing that high BMI is...

issues in oncology

Are Patient-Reported Outcomes Predictive of Survival and Likelihood of Hospitalization?

In a study reported in JCO Oncology Practice, Kerrigan et al found that patient-reported outcomes (PROs), obtained by using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System–Cancer (PROMIS-Ca) Bank, may be prognostic for outcomes in patients with advanced...

multiple myeloma
immunotherapy

Activity of Anti-BCMA BiTE Molecule AMG 420 in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

In a phase I study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Max S. Topp, MD, and colleagues found the maximum tolerated dose of the investigational anti–B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) molecule AMG 420 elicited a high response rate in patients with relapsed or ...

solid tumors
immunotherapy

Dual VEGF and PD-1 Inhibition in Advanced Solid Tumors

In a phase Ib/II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Taylor et al found the combination of the VEGF inhibitor lenvatinib and the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab showed activity across a range of advanced solid tumors. As stated by the authors, there is ...

skin cancer

Cemiplimab in Locally Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Migden et al, a phase II trial has shown activity of cemiplimab in patients with locally advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The trial supported the September 2018 U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of cemiplimab in this setting. In this report, ...

pancreatic cancer

Olaparib as Maintenance Therapy for Germline BRCA-Mutated Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

On December 27, 2019, the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor olaparib was approved for the maintenance treatment of adult patients with deleterious or suspected deleterious germline BRCA-mutated metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, as detected by a U.S. Food and Drug Administration...

prostate cancer

Olaparib for Previously Treated, Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer With DNA Repair Gene Aberrations

In the phase II TOPARP-B trial—reported by Joaquin Mateo, MD, in The Lancet Oncology—investigators found that olaparib showed good activity in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and DNA damage response (DDR) gene aberrations who had received one or two prior taxane regimens....

bladder cancer

TIVO-3: Third- or Fourth-Line Tivozanib vs Sorafenib in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Brian I. Rini, MD, and colleagues, the phase III TIVO-3 trial has shown a statistically significant increase in progression-free survival with tivozanib vs sorafenib as a third- or fourth-line treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma. Study Details The...

breast cancer

First-Line Atezolizumab Plus Nab-paclitaxel in Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Second Overall Survival Interim Analysis

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Peter Schmid, MD, and colleagues, the prespecified second interim analysis of overall survival in the phase III IMpassion130 trial has shown no overall survival benefit with the addition of atezolizumab to nab-paclitaxel as first-line treatment of...

breast cancer

Recurrence Risk in Black and White Women With Borderline Estrogen Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Halei C. Benefield, PhD, and colleagues found that black women with borderline estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer had significantly poorer disease-free interval compared with those with ER-positive disease,...

bladder cancer

Enfortumab Vedotin-ejfv for Previously Treated Advanced Urothelial Cancer

On December 18, 2019, the antibody-drug conjugate enfortumab vedotin-ejfv (PadcevTM) was granted accelerated approval for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer who have previously received a programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed cell...

breast cancer
immunotherapy

Fam-trastuzumab Deruxtecan-nxki for Previously Treated Unresectable or Metastatic HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

On December 20, 2019, the antibody-drug conjugate fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki was granted accelerated approval in the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer who have received two or more prior anti–HER2-based regimens in the metastatic setting.1,2...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Atezolizumab With Chemotherapy for Metastatic Nonsquamous NSCLC Without EGFR/ALK Aberrations

On December 3, 2019, atezolizumab in combination with nab-paclitaxel and carboplatin was approved for first-line treatment of metastatic nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with no EGFR or ALK genomic tumore aberrations.1,2 The approval was based on findings in the open-label phase III...

prostate cancer

Enzalutamide for Metastatic Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer

On December 16, 2019, enzalutamide (Xtandi) was approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer.1,2 Supporting Efficacy Data The current approval was based on findings from the phase III double-blind ARCHES trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier...

sarcoma

Pathologic Fracture and Prognosis in Adult and Pediatric Patients With High-Grade Osteosarcoma

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Kelley et al found that pathologic fracture was associated with poorer overall survival among adult—but not pediatric—patients with primary central high-grade osteosarcoma of the extremities. Study Details The study involved retrospective...

prostate cancer
health-care policy
cost of care

Price Transparency and Variation for Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Trevor Royce, MS, MD, MPH, and colleagues found that publicly available information on pricing for radiation treatment for prostate cancer was complex and inconsistent, and that pricing varied widely among National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Immune-Related Adverse Events and Recurrence-Free Survival With Adjuvant Immunotherapy vs Placebo in Stage III Melanoma

In an analysis of the EORTC 1325/KEYNOTE-054 trial of adjuvant pembrolizumab vs placebo in stage III melanoma reported in JAMA Oncology, Alexander M.M. Eggermont, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that patients treated with pembrolizumab who experienced immune-related adverse events had improved...

lung cancer

Impact of the NCI Cell-Line Database: A Testament to Patient Altruism

In an homage to the gracious patients who provided biospecimens and to the dedicated researchers who have tended and studied the derived cell lines, James L. Mulshine, MD, of the Center for Healthy Aging, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush University, and colleagues have described the impact of...

solid tumors

Relapse and Outcomes in Men Receiving Adjuvant Bleomycin/Etoposide/Cisplatin for Clinical Stage I Nonseminoma

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Fischer et al found different patterns of relapse and associated outcomes among men with relapse after treatment with adjuvant bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin for clinical stage I nonseminoma. The study included data on 51 patients from 18...

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