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prostate cancer
health-care policy

Price Transparency and Variation for Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Trevor Royce, MS, MD, MPH, and colleagues found that publicly available information on pricing for radiation treatment for prostate cancer was complex and inconsistent, and that pricing varied widely among National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Immune-Related Adverse Events and Recurrence-Free Survival With Adjuvant Immunotherapy vs Placebo in Stage III Melanoma

In an analysis of the EORTC 1325/KEYNOTE-054 trial of adjuvant pembrolizumab vs placebo in stage III melanoma reported in JAMA Oncology, Alexander M.M. Eggermont, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that patients treated with pembrolizumab who experienced immune-related adverse events had improved...

lung cancer

Impact of the NCI Cell-Line Database: A Testament to Patient Altruism

In an homage to the gracious patients who provided biospecimens and to the dedicated researchers who have tended and studied the derived cell lines, James L. Mulshine, MD, of the Center for Healthy Aging, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush University, and colleagues have described the impact of...

solid tumors

Relapse and Outcomes in Men Receiving Adjuvant Bleomycin/Etoposide/Cisplatin for Clinical Stage I Nonseminoma

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Fischer et al found different patterns of relapse and associated outcomes among men with relapse after treatment with adjuvant bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin for clinical stage I nonseminoma. The study included data on 51 patients from 18...

lung cancer

Entrectinib in Advanced ROS1 Fusion–Positive NSCLC

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Alexander Drilon, MD, and colleagues, an integrated analysis of three phase I/II trials has shown high activity of the TRK and ROS1 inhibitor entrectinib in ROS1 fusion-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This analysis supported the August 2019 U.S....

breast cancer

External-Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation vs Whole-Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery in DCIS or Node-Negative Breast Cancer

As reported in The Lancet by Timothy J. Whelan, BM, BCh, and colleagues, the phase III noninferiority RAPID trial has shown that external-beam accelerated partial-breast irradiation is noninferior to whole-breast irradiation in reducing risk of local recurrence after breast-conserving surgery in...

leukemia

Conditioning Intensity for Allogeneic Transplantation in Patients With AML

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hourigan et al found that reduced-intensity conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation was associated with poorer outcomes vs myeloablative conditioning in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who had genomic...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Maintenance Bevacizumab With or Without Pemetrexed in Advanced Nonsquamous NSCLC

In a Japanese phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Seto et al found that the addition of maintenance pemetrexed to bevacizumab did not significantly improve overall survival in patients with previously untreated, advanced nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

Different Doses of Adjuvant Ipilimumab vs High-Dose Interferon Alfa-2b in Patients With Resected High-Risk Melanoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Tarhini et al, the phase III Intergroup E1609 trial has shown an overall survival advantage with adjuvant ipilimumab at 3 mg/kg—but not at 10 mg/kg—vs high-dose interferon alfa-2b in patients with resected high-risk cutaneous melanoma. The...

breast cancer
issues in oncology

Are Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Diagnosis Caused by Health Insurance Coverage?

Lack of insurance coverage is a major cause of delayed breast cancer screening and treatment among minority women, which could lead to a decrease in a patient’s chance of survival. Nearly half of the disparity in later-stage diagnosis between non-Hispanic white women and black, Hispanic, and...

prostate cancer

Patient-Reported Functional Outcomes With Hypofractionated vs Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

In a national cohort study conducted in the United Kingdom and reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Nossiter et al found no clinically important differences in patient-reported functional outcomes among men receiving hypofractionated vs conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for...

multiple myeloma

Activity of Belantamab Mafodotin in Patients With Heavily Pretreated Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

In the phase II DREAMM-2 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Sagar Lonial, MD, and colleagues found that the antibody-drug conjugate belantamab mafodotin was active in patients with heavily pretreated relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. The agent is a conjugate of an anti–B-cell maturation...

myelodysplastic syndromes

Luspatercept in Transfusion-Dependent Lower-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes

In the phase III MEDALIST trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Fenaux et al found that luspatercept significantly reduced the severity of anemia vs placebo in red blood cell transfusion–dependent patients with very low- to intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndromes with ring...

leukemia

ADMIRAL Trial: Gilteritinib Improves Overall Survival in Relapsed or Refractory FLT3-Mutated AML

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Alexander E. Perl, MD, of Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, and colleagues, the phase III ADMIRAL trial showed improved overall survival with the oral FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitor gilteritinib vs salvage...

solid tumors
genomics/genetics

Entrectinib in Advanced or Metastatic NTRK Fusion–Positive Solid Tumors

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by George D. Demetri, MD, and colleagues, integrated analysis of three phase I/II trials has shown high levels of activity of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) inhibitor entrectinib in advanced NTRK fusion–positive solid tumors. This analysis supported the...

leukemia

Activity of Ruxolitinib in Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia and Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

In a phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Dao et al found that the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib was active in patients with chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL), with less activity observed in those with atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and greater activity observed...

gynecologic cancers

Is There an Association Between Powder Use and Risk of Ovarian Cancer?

As reported in JAMA by O’Brien et al, pooled data from four large U.S.-based prospective cohorts suggest the lack of a significant association between the use of powder in the genital area and an increased risk of ovarian cancer. The investigators noted that the analysis may have not been...

breast cancer

Does Adding Trastuzumab to Adjuvant Chemotherapy Improve Invasive Disease–Free Survival for Patients With HER2-Negative Breast Cancer?

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Louis Fehrenbacher, MD, and colleagues, the phase III NSABP B-47/NRG Oncology trial has shown no invasive disease–free survival benefit with the addition of trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy therapy in patients with HER2-negative breast cancer...

breast cancer

Dietary Supplement Use During Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Treatment Outcomes in Patients With Early Breast Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Ambrosone et al, an analysis of the SWOG S0221 trial population suggests that use of antioxidant and nonantioxidant dietary supplements, but not multivitamins, before and during adjuvant chemotherapy may be associated with poorer treatment outcomes ...

gynecologic cancers
immunotherapy

Addition of Olaparib to Bevacizumab Maintenance in Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer Responding to First-Line Therapy

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Isabelle Ray-Coquard, MD, PhD, and colleagues, the phase III PAOLA-1 trial has shown a progression-free survival benefit with the addition of olaparib to bevacizumab maintenance in patients with advanced ovarian cancer responding to first-line...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Noninferiority of Four vs Six Cycles of CHOP for Patients With Favorable Prognosis B-Cell Lymphoma: FLYER Trial

As reported in The Lancet by Viola Poeschel, MD, and colleagues, the phase III FLYER trial has shown noninferiority of progression-free survival with four vs six cycles of cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone (CHOP) in combination with six doses of rituximab in patients with...

breast cancer

Recurrence Risk With Accelerated Partial- vs Whole-Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Early Breast Cancer: Long-Term Follow-up

As reported in The Lancet by Frank A. Vicini, MD, and colleagues, 10-year follow-up in the phase III NSABP B-39/RTOG 0413 equivalence trial has shown that accelerated partial-breast irradiation did not achieve equivalence to whole-breast irradiation in preventing local recurrence in women receiving ...

prostate cancer

Olaparib for Previously Treated, Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer With DNA Repair Gene Aberrations

In the phase II TOPARP-B trial—reported by Mateo et al in The Lancet Oncology—investigators found that olaparib showed activity in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and DNA damage response (DDR) gene aberrations who had received one or two prior taxane regimens. Study...

solid tumors
lymphoma
immunotherapy

Is Pembrolizumab Active in Pediatric Patients With PD-L1–Positive Advanced Solid Tumors or Lymphoma?

Interim analysis of the phase I/II KEYNOTE-051 trial, reported in The Lancet Oncology by Geoerger et al, indicated minimal activity of pembrolizumab in pediatric patients with programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive advanced, relapsed, or refractory solid tumors; however, activity was...

breast cancer

FDA Pooled Analysis of CDK4/6 Inhibitor Treatment for Advanced Hormone Receptor–Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

In a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pooled analysis reported in The Lancet Oncology, Jennifer J. Gao, MD, and colleagues found that the magnitude of progression-free survival benefit with the addition of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor to endocrine therapy in women with...

lung cancer

Long-Term Results of Standard- vs High-Dose Chemoradiotherapy With or Without Cetuximab in Patients With Stage III NSCLC

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Jeffrey D. Bradley, MD, and colleagues, long-term results of the phase III NRG Oncology/RTOG 0617 trial indicate that standard-dose radiotherapy should remain the standard of care in chemoradiotherapy for nonresectable stage III non–small cell...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Pembrolizumab in KRAS-Mutant and Wild-Type PD-L1–Positive Nonsquamous NSCLC

In an analysis reported in Annals of Oncology, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that pembrolizumab was active in both KRAS-mutant and wild-type tumors in a subgroup of patients in the KEYNOTE-042 trial with programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive nonsquamous non–small cell lung...

prostate cancer

Neoadjuvant vs Concurrent ADT With Dose-Escalated Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

In a two-institute phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Malone et al found no difference in biochemical relapse–free survival with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) initiated prior to or concurrently with dose-escalated external-beam radiotherapy in patients with localized ...

colorectal cancer

Rates of Guideline-Aligned Genomic Profiling in Patients Diagnosed With Metastatic Colon Cancer

In a study reported in JCO Precision Oncology, Gutierrez et al found that most patients in a U.S. sample diagnosed with metastatic colon cancer between 2013 and 2017 did not receive guideline-aligned genomic testing for RAS, BRAF, and microsatellite instability/mismatch repair–deficiency (MSI/dMMR) ...

breast cancer

Overall Survival With the Addition of Ribociclib to Fulvestrant in Hormone Receptor–Positive, HER2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: MONALEESA-3

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Dennis J. Slamon, MD, PhD, and colleagues, in the phase III MONALEESA-3 trial, the second interim analysis of overall survival has shown a significant benefit with the addition of ribociclib to fulvestrant in first- or second-line treatment of...

multiple myeloma
immunotherapy

Overall Survival With the Addition of Daratumumab to VMP in Newly Diagnosed, Transplant-Ineligible Multiple Myeloma

As reported in The Lancet by Maria-Victoria Mateos, MD, and colleagues, interim analysis of overall survival in the phase III ALCYONE trial has shown a significant benefit of the addition of daratumumab to bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (D-VMP) in patients with newly diagnosed multiple...

breast cancer

Long-Term Results of IBIS-II: Anastrozole for Breast Cancer Prevention

As reported by Jack Cuzick, PhD, and colleagues in The Lancet, blinded follow-up of the IBIS-II trial has shown the continued benefit of anastrozole vs placebo in preventing breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women during the 5-year posttreatment period. For the international double-blind...

solid tumors
issues in oncology

Cardiovascular Risks After Bleomycin/Etoposide/Cisplatin Treatment for Germ Cell Cancer

In a Danish study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lauritsen et al found that patients treated for germ cell cancer exhibited an increase of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease at short- and long-term follow-up. Study Details The study involved 5,185 patients with...

lung cancer

Osimertinib in Patients With NSCLC Harboring Uncommon EGFR Mutations

In a Korean phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Myung-Ju Ahn, MD, PhD, and colleagues found that osimertinib was active in patients with metastatic or recurrent non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with uncommon EGFR mutations. Study Details In the multicenter study, 36...

breast cancer

D-CARE Trial: Adjuvant Denosumab for Patients With Early Breast Cancer

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Robert Coleman, MD, FRCP, and colleagues, the phase III D-CARE trial has shown no benefit of adjuvant therapy with the RANKL inhibitor denosumab vs placebo in improving bone metastasis–free survival in women with moderate- to high-risk early breast cancer....

leukemia

Asciminib for Patients With CML After Failure of ABL Kinase Inhibitor Treatment

In a phase I trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Hughes et al found that asciminib, an oral BCR-ABL1 inhibitor with a mechanism of action different from available ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors, was active in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after failure of ABL...

breast cancer

Trastuzumab and Hyaluronidase-oysk for Subcutaneous Use in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

Early in 2019, trastuzumab and the endoglycosidase hyaluronidase-oysk for subcutaneous injection was approved in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.1,2 The agent is indicated for adjuvant treatment of patients with HER2-overexpressing node-positive or node-negative (estrogen...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Rituximab-abbs: Biosimilar to Rituximab for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

In the Clinic provides overviews of novel oncology agents, addressing indications, mechanisms of action, administration recommendations, safety profiles, and other essential information needed for the appropriate clinical use of these drugs. Late in 2018, rituximab-abbs was approved as the first...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Pembrolizumab in Relapsed or Refractory Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma: KEYNOTE-013 and KEYNOTE-170

Findings in the phase Ib KEYNOTE-013 and phase II KEYNOTE-170 trials, reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Philippe Armand, MD, PhD, of Dana­Farber Cancer Institute, and colleagues, indicate that pembrolizumab is active in relapsed or refractory primary mediastinal large B-cell...

head and neck cancer
immunotherapy

Pembrolizumab vs Cetuximab Plus Chemotherapy in Recurrent or Metastatic Head/Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

As reported in The Lancet by Barbara Burtness, MD, of the Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, and colleagues, the phase III KEYNOTE-048 trial has shown improved overall survival with first-line pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy vs cetuximab plus chemotherapy among patients...

breast cancer

Breast-Conserving Surgery and Partial-Breast Reirradiation in Patients With Ipsilateral Disease Recurrence

Findings from the phase II NRG Oncology/RTOG 1014 trial, reported in JAMA Oncology by Douglas W. Arthur, MD, and colleagues showed that partial-breast reirradiation after second lumpectomy for recurrence of ipsilateral breast cancer following previous whole-breast irradiation was an effective...

breast cancer

Swedish Study of Risk-Adapted Screening Starting Ages for Relatives of Patients With Breast Cancer

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Trasias Mukama, MPH, and colleagues identified risk-adapted screening starting ages for relatives of patients with breast cancer according to the number of affected first-degree and second-degree relatives and the age at diagnosis of affected relatives. The...

prostate cancer

Sequencing of Enzalutamide and Abiraterone Acetate in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

In a Canadian phase II crossover trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Kim N. Chi, MD, and colleagues found that time to second prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression from start of treatment was longer with crossover from abiraterone acetate/prednisone to enzalutamide vs the reverse sequence ...

bladder cancer

Does the Addition of Ramucirumab to Docetaxel Improve Overall Survival in Previously Treated Urothelial Carcinoma?

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Daniel P. Petrylak, MD, and colleagues, the phase III RANGE trial has shown no significant improvement in overall survival with the addition of ramucirumab to docetaxel in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma previously treated...

leukemia
immunotherapy

Fractionated Tisagenlecleucel Infusion for Adults With B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia May Improve Safety Without Reducing Efficacy

As reported by Noelle V. Frey, MD, and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, single-center experience with the anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy tisagenlecleucel has shown that high-dose fractionated infusion with the ability to modify dosing in case of early signs...

gastroesophageal cancer
genomics/genetics

Treatment of Advanced Esophagogastric Cancer According to ERCC1 Expression

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Iqbal and colleagues, the phase II SWOG S1201 trial showed a progression-free survival benefit with platinum-containing vs nonplatinum treatment among all patients with previously untreated HER2-negative advanced esophagogastric cancer and in a...

breast cancer

How Effective Is Supplemental MRI Screening for Women With Extremely Dense Breasts?

In the Dutch DENSE study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Bakker et al found that supplemental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in women with extremely dense breast tissue and normal results on screening mammography was associated with the diagnosis of significantly fewer interval...

leukemia

Gilteritinib for Relapsed or Refractory AML With FLT3 Mutation

Late in 2018, the FLT3 inhibitor gilteritinib was approved for the treatment of adult patients who have relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a FLT3 mutation, as detected by a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved test.1,2 The FDA also approved an expanded indication...

skin cancer

Pembrolizumab in Adjuvant Treatment of Melanoma With Involvement of Lymph Nodes After Complete Resection

In early 2019, pembrolizumab was approved for the adjuvant treatment of patients with melanoma with involvement of lymph node(s) following complete resection.1,2 Supporting Efficacy Data Approval was based on findings in the double-blind EORTC 1325/KEYNOTE-054 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier...

Grief Symptom Levels in Parents of Children Who Have Died of Cancer

In a Swedish study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Pohlkamp et al identified factors associated with levels of prolonged grief symptoms in parents of children who have died of cancer, with factors being found to differ between mothers and fathers.1 As stated by the investigators,...

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