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kidney cancer
immunotherapy

IMmotion151: First-Line Atezolizumab/Bevacizumab vs Sunitinib in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

In the phase III IMmotion151 trial reported in The Lancet, Rini et al found that atezolizumab plus bevacizumab prolonged progression-free survival vs sunitinib in patients with previously untreated, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive, metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Study Details...

multiple myeloma

OPTIMISMM: Addition of Pomalidomide to Bortezomib/Dexamethasone in Pretreated Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

In the phase III OPTIMISMM trial, reported by Richardson et al in The Lancet Oncology, researchers found that the addition of pomalidomide to bortezomib/dexamethasone improved progression-free survival in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma previously treated with lenalidomide. Study Details...

gynecologic cancers

TRINOVA-3: Addition of Trebananib to Carboplatin/Paclitaxel as First-Line Treatment for Advanced Ovarian Cancer

In a phase III trial (TRINOVA-3/ENGOT-ov2/GOG-3001) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Vergote et al found that addition of the antiangiogenic agent trebananib to carboplatin/paclitaxel did not improve progression-free survival in first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. Trebananib is a...

breast cancer

Digital Breast Tomosynthesis vs Digital Mammography in a Breast Cancer Screening Program

In a Norwegian study (To-Be) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Hofvind et al found that digital breast tomosynthesis (including synthetic 2D mammograms) did not perform better than standard digital mammography in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Study Details BreastScreen Norway ...

cns cancers
symptom management

Treatment-Related Ototoxicity and Reading Impairment in Pediatric Patients With Embryonal Brain Tumors

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Olivier et al found that pediatric patients with severe sensorineural hearing loss associated with the treatment of embryonal brain tumors experienced greater reading difficulties over time. The study involved data from 260 children and...

breast cancer
gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer

Trastuzumab Deruxtecan in Advanced HER2-Positive Gastric and Breast Cancers

Two phase I studies reported in The Lancet Oncology indicate activity of the antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab deruxtecan in advanced HER2-positive gastric cancer and advanced HER2-positive breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). Trastuzumab deruxtecan (DS-8201a) is a ...

lung cancer

Long-Term Results With Local Consolidative Therapy vs Maintenance Therapy or Observation in Oligometastatic NSCLC

In long-term follow-up of a phase II study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Gomez et al confirmed superior outcomes with local consolidative therapy vs maintenance therapy or observation in patients with oligometastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the open-label,...

hepatobiliary cancer

Rate of 'Textbook Outcomes' in Curative-Intent Resection of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

In a multi-institutional international analysis reported in JAMA Surgery, Merath et al found that a textbook outcome was achieved in a minority of patients undergoing curative-intent resection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Study Details The study involved data on 687 patients from 15 major...

issues in oncology

Impact of Establishment of Cancer Urgent Care Clinic on Emergency Department Visits

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Hong et al found that the establishment of a cancer urgent care clinic slowed the increasing rate of visits to regional emergency departments among adults newly diagnosed with cancer.  Study Details The study involved data on 33,316...

issues in oncology

Control Arm Quality in Randomized Oncology Trials Leading to FDA Approval

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Hilal et al found that 17% of recent cancer drug approvals based on randomized controlled trials featured a suboptimal control arm. Study Details The study involved analysis of a total of 145 studies that led to 143 drug approvals between January 2013 and...

prostate cancer
issues in oncology

Alcohol Intake and Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer

As reported by Downer et al in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, findings from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study indicate that moderate alcohol consumption is safe for patients with prostate cancer. Study Details The prospective cohort study used data from the Health Professionals...

head and neck cancer

HPV DNA and Outcomes After Primary Treatment for Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

In a two-institution study reported in JAMA Oncology, Fakhry et al found that persistent detection of tumor-type human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA after primary treatment for oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas was associated with poorer outcomes. Study Details The prospective study...

breast cancer

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With or Without Use of Preoperative Lymphoscintigraphy in Early Breast Cancer

In a German/Swiss phase III trial (SenSzi [GBG80]) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Kuemmel et al found that preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was not associated with an increased number of histologically detected sentinel lymph nodes with sentinel lymph node biopsy in women with early...

sarcoma
immunotherapy

Axitinib Plus Pembrolizumab in Advanced Sarcomas

In a phase II trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Wilky et al found evidence of activity of axitinib plus pembrolizumab in advanced sarcomas, including alveolar soft-part sarcoma. Study Details The study involved 33 patients with advanced or metastatic sarcomas, including alveolar soft-part...

bladder cancer

Ultradeep Sequencing of Plasma Cell-Free DNA in Bladder Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Christensen et al found that identification of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) by ultradeep sequencing of plasma cell-free DNA was highly prognostic for outcome in bladder cancer and permitted early detection of relapse.  The study...

lymphoma
immunotherapy

Addition of Decitabine to Camrelizumab in Relapsed or Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

In a single-center phase II trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Nie et al found a higher complete response rate with the addition of low-dose decitabine to the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor camrelizumab in anti–PD-1 treatment–naive patients with...

multiple myeloma
immunotherapy

Anti-BCMA CAR T-Cell Therapy in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

In a phase I trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Raje et al found that bb2121, a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy targeting B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), was safe in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Investigators reported ...

head and neck cancer

Oropharyngeal Cancer Trends in White Men

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Tota et al found that there has been a reduction in the increase of oropharyngeal cancer among young white men, with a high number of cases projected among older white men in coming years. As stated by the investigators, “Human...

skin cancer
immunotherapy

PD-1 Inhibitor–Associated Cutaneous Toxicity and Clinical Outcomes in Advanced Melanoma

In a research letter published in JAMA Oncology, Quach et al found that cutaneous toxicities related to anti–programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) treatment—specifically, vitiligo and rash—were associated with improved clinical outcomes in advanced melanoma. Study Details The...

pain management

Single-Fraction Stereotactic vs Multifraction Radiotherapy for Pain Relief in Predominantly Nonspinal Bone Metastases

In a single-center phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Nguyen et al found that single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) was associated with improved pain relief vs conventional multifraction radiotherapy in patients with mostly nonspinal bone metastases. In the noninferiority...

colorectal cancer

Impact of Consensus Molecular Subtype on Outcome in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Lenz et al found that consensus molecular subtype of colorectal cancers was highly prognostic for outcomes in patients receiving first-line treatment for advanced disease in the phase III CALGB/SWOG 80405/Alliance trial. CALGB/SWOG 80405...

breast cancer

Final Analysis of the HannaH Trial: Perioperative Subcutaneous vs Intravenous Trastuzumab in HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer

As reported in JAMA Oncology by Jackisch et al, the final analysis of the phase III HannaH trial indicated comparable efficacy and safety of perioperative subcutaneous (SC) vs intravenous (IV) trastuzumab in ERBB2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer. Earlier reports from the trial showed similar...

symptom management
immunotherapy

Treatment-Related Adverse Events With PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in Clinical Trials

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Wang et al characterized treatment-related adverse event profiles associated with monotherapy use of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors in clinical trials. Study Details...

gynecologic cancers
immunotherapy

GOG-252: Intravenous vs Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Advanced Ovarian Carcinoma

In the phase III NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG)-252 study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Walker et al found no progression-free survival benefit of postsurgical intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy vs intravenous (IV) chemotherapy, each combined with bevacizumab, in...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

Association Between Clinical Outcomes and Patient Characteristics/Genomic Profiles in Lung Cancer

As reported in JAMA, Singal et al used a clinicogenomic database in routine clinical practice to identify associations between treatment outcomes and patient characteristics or tumor genomic profiles in the setting of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study cohort of 4,064 patients...

gynecologic cancers
cost of care

Treat-and-Release Emergency Department Use by Patients With Gynecologic Cancers

In a study reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice, Albright et al found that treat-and-release emergency department use by patients with gynecologic cancers has increased in recent years, with an increase in total cost in this population but not in average visit cost. Visits and Costs...

issues in oncology
cost of care
symptom management

Emergency Department Visits for Treatment-Related Complications of Systemic Therapy and Radiotherapy

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Jairam et al found that emergency department visits for complications of systemic therapy or radiotherapy in patients with cancer increased at a 5.5-fold higher rate over 10 years compared with overall emergency department visits. Study Details The study...

gynecologic cancers

Adjuvant Pelvic Radiation Therapy vs Vaginal Brachytherapy Plus Chemotherapy in Endometrial Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Randall et al, the phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG)-0249 trial showed similar outcomes with adjuvant pelvic radiation therapy vs vaginal brachytherapy plus paclitaxel/carboplatin in high-intermediate and high-risk early-stage endometrial...

colorectal cancer
immunotherapy

IMblaze370: Atezolizumab With or Without Cobimetinib vs Regorafenib in Previously Treated Advanced Colorectal Cancer

In the phase III IMblaze370 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Eng et al found no survival benefit with third-line atezolizumab with or without cobimetinib vs regorafenib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. Study Details The open-label trial included 363...

solid tumors
hepatobiliary cancer

Adjuvant Capecitabine After Resection for Biliary Tract Cancer

In the phase III BILCAP trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, John N. Primrose, FMedSci, and colleagues found evidence that adjuvant capecitabine may improve overall survival vs observation following surgery for patients with resected biliary tract cancer.  The open-label study included 447...

survivorship
issues in oncology

Risk of Cardiomyopathy in Childhood Cancer Survivors

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Eric J. Chow, MD, MPH, and colleagues found that daunorubicin was associated with decreased cardiomyopathy risk vs doxorubicin among pediatric cancer survivors, with epirubicin being approximately isoequivalent to doxorubicin. Risk associated with the...

hepatobiliary cancer

Minimal Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Pediatric Hepatoblastoma Resected at Diagnosis

In an analysis from the Children’s Oncology Group phase III AHEP0731 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Katzenstein et al found that minimal adjuvant chemotherapy with two cycles of cisplatin, fluorouracil, and vincristine was associated with disease control in pediatric patients with...

leukemia

Long-Term Follow-up: Addition of Idelalisib to Rituximab in Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

In an article published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Sharman et al provided long-term findings of a phase III trial that examined the addition of idelalisib to rituximab in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including findings from an extension phase of idelalisib monotherapy. The ...

kidney cancer

First-Line Combination Treatments Improve Outcomes vs Sunitinib in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

Two recently reported phase III trials have shown the benefits of combination therapy vs sunitinib in the first-line treatment in advanced renal cell carcinoma. As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Brian I. Rini, MD, of Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, and colleagues, the ...

prostate cancer

Final Overall Survival Analysis of the LATITUDE Trial in Newly Diagnosed, High-Risk, Metastatic, Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Fizazi et al, the final overall survival analysis in the phase III LATITUDE trial has shown a significant benefit with the addition of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in newly diagnosed, high-risk, metastatic, ...

sarcoma

Phase II Study of Regorafenib in Metastatic Osteosarcoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Davis et al, outcomes in the osteosarcoma cohort of the phase II SARC024 trial indicated a progression-free survival benefit with regorafenib vs placebo in previously treated metastatic osteosarcoma. Study Details The randomized...

lung cancer

Erlotinib Plus Bevacizumab vs Erlotinib Alone in EGFR-Positive, Advanced Nonsquamous NSCLC

In an interim analysis of the phase III NEJ026 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Saito et al found that the addition of bevacizumab to erlotinib improved progression-free survival in patients with EGFR-positive, nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the open-label...

hematologic malignancies
lymphoma

Risk Model for Disease Progression in Asymptomatic Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Bustoros et al developed a model for predicting risk of progression from asymptomatic Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia to symptomatic disease requiring treatment. The study involved 439 patients with asymptomatic...

hepatobiliary cancer

Addition of Nab-paclitaxel to Gemcitabine and Cisplatin in Advanced Biliary Tract Cancers

In a phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Shroff and colleagues found that the addition of nab-paclitaxel to standard gemcitabine and cisplatin resulted in promising outcomes in patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic biliary tract cancers. The study included 60 patients...

leukemia

Intermittent vs Intensive PEG-Asparaginase in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

In a Scandinavian study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Albertsen et al found that use of intermittent vs intensive pegylated (PEG)-asparaginase was associated with similar efficacy and reduced asparaginase-related toxicity in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The study...

hepatobiliary cancer

Ramucirumab in Sorafenib-Pretreated Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

In the phase III REACH-2 trial reported in The Lancet Oncology, Andrew X. Zhu, MD, of Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, and colleagues found that ramucirumab improved overall and progression-free survival vs placebo in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and...

immunotherapy
skin cancer

Molecular Profiles and Immunotherapy Outcomes in BRAF V600E– and V600K–Mutant Melanoma

In a study reported in Clinical Cancer Research, Alexander M. Menzies, MD, of Melanoma Institute Australia, The University of Sydney, and Royal North Shore and Mater Hospitals, and colleagues found that BRAF V600K melanomas are less responsive to BRAF inhibitor with or without MEK inhibitor...

lung cancer
issues in oncology

Combined Crowd Innovation and AI in Producing Algorithms for Radiotherapy Targeting

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Mak et al found that a crowd innovation contest produced automated artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms “that replicated the skills of a highly trained physician” in segmenting lung tumors for radiotherapy targeting. The investigators also noted...

breast cancer

Low-Dose Tamoxifen vs Placebo in Preventing Local and Contralateral Recurrence in Breast Intraepithelial Neoplasia

In an Italian phase III study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, DeCensi et al found that tamoxifen at 5 mg/d vs placebo for 3 years reduced the risk of recurrence of breast intraepithelial neoplasia and was associated with limited toxicity. As noted by the investigators,...

gynecologic cancers

Modeling Projections of Global Cervical Cancer Control

In a modeling study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Karen Canfell, DPhil, and colleagues detailed the preventive effects on cervical cancer that could be achieved by scaled-up human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical screening efforts with the aim of disease elimination. The major...

gynecologic cancers

Effect of Lymphadenectomy on Progression-Free and Overall Survival in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

In the international phase III LION study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Philipp Harter, MD, and colleagues found that lymphadenectomy did not improve progression-free or overall survival vs no lymphadenectomy in women with advanced ovarian cancer. Study Details The trial...

solid tumors

SABR-COMET: Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy vs Standard Palliative Treatment in Oligometastatic Cancers

Results of the phase II SABR-COMET trial reported by Palma et al in The Lancet indicate that stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) was associated with improved survival vs standard palliative treatment in patients with oligometastatic cancers, although it was also associated with...

gastroesophageal cancer
gastrointestinal cancer

Perioperative Therapy With FLOT vs ECF/ECX in Locally Advanced Gastric Adenocarcinoma

In the German phase II/III FLOT4 trial reported in The Lancet, Al-Batran et al found that perioperative therapy with the docetaxel-based triplet FLOT (fluorouracil [5-FU]/leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel) was associated with improved overall survival vs ECF/ECX (epirubicin and cisplatin plus...

head and neck cancer
pain management

Doxepin or Diphenhydramine/Lidocaine/Antacid Mouthwash for Radiotherapy-Related Oral Mucositis Pain

In the phase III Alliance A221304 trial reported in JAMA, Sio et al found that doxepin mouthwash and diphenhydramine/lidocaine/antacid mouthwash reduced oral mucositis pain for the first 4 hours after administration in patients with oral mucositis pain from head and neck radiotherapy, but the...

lung cancer
immunotherapy

KEYNOTE-042: Pembrolizumab vs Chemotherapy in Previously Untreated Locally Advanced or Metastatic NSCLC With PD-L1 Expression ≥ 1%

As reported in The Lancet by Mok et al, the KEYNOTE-042 trial has shown an improvement in overall survival with pembrolizumab vs standard chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with locally advanced or metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without a sensitizing EGFR mutation or ...

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