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Ibrutinib in Relapsed or Refractory Follicular Lymphoma

In the phase II DAWN study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Gopal et al found that ibrutinib (Imbruvica) produced a response in a minority of patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma. Study Details In the study, 110 patients with ≥ 2 prior lines of treatment...

Suboptimal Use of Initial Chemotherapy in Newly Diagnosed AML

In a study of National Cancer Database data reported in Blood Advances, Bhatt et al found that 25% of patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) did not receive initial chemotherapy, despite evidence that chemotherapy is associated with a survival benefit and improvement in symptoms ...

ASCO/CAP Clinical Practice Guideline Focused Update on HER2 Testing in Breast Cancer

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Antonio C. Wolff, MD, of Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, and colleagues, ASCO and the College of American Pathologists (CAP) have issued a clinical practice guideline focused update on HER2 testing in breast cancer....

Activity of Ivosidenib in IDH1-Mutated Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

As reported at the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting and in The New England Journal of Medicine by DiNardo et al, early-phase testing has shown activity of ivosidenib, an oral small-molecule inhibitor of mutant IDH1, in patients with IDH1-mutated relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). IDH1...

Once- vs Twice-Weekly Carfilzomib in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

An interim analysis of the phase III ARROW trial reported in The Lancet Oncology by Moreau et al indicated that a higher-dose once-weekly schedule of carfilzomib was associated with prolonged progression-free survival vs a twice-weekly schedule in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple...

Activity of the PD-1 Inhibitor Cemiplimab in Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

As reported at the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting (Abstract 9519) and in The New England Journal of Medicine by Migden et al, results of early-phase testing show activity of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor cemiplimab in advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Currently, no...

KEYNOTE-224: Pembrolizumab in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Pretreated With Sorafenib

As reported in The Lancet Oncology by Zhu et al, the phase II KEYNOTE-224 study has shown activity of pembrolizumab in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pretreated with sorafenib. Study Details In the study, 104 eligible patients who were intolerant of or progressed on sorafenib were...

Final Overall Survival Analysis of First-Line Crizotinib vs Chemotherapy in Advanced ALK-Positive NSCLC

As reported by Solomon and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the final overall survival results of the phase III PROFILE 1014 trial showed evidence of survival benefit of first-line crizotinib (Xalkori) vs chemotherapy in advanced ALK-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ...

Informed Consent Issues for Patients With Advanced Cancer in Phase I Trials

As reported by Hlubocky et al in the Journal of Oncology Practice, oncologists may not provide patients with advanced cancer participating in phase I clinical trials with sufficient information about prognosis and purposes of phase I testing during enrollment discussions. Study Details The study...

breast cancer
survivorship

Low-Fat Dietary Intervention and Overall Survival After Breast Cancer Diagnosis

In an analysis from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Chlebowski et al found that overall survival after the diagnosis of incident breast cancer was improved in women in the reduced-fat dietary intervention group vs control group, reflecting reduced...

Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Stage III NSCLC

In a Dutch phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, De Ruysscher et al found that prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) prevented symptomatic brain metastases vs observation in patients with stage III non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving treatment with curative...

ASCO Guideline for Geriatric Oncology: Practical Assessment and Management of Vulnerabilities in Older Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Supriya G. Mohile, MD, of the University of Rochester Medical Center, and colleagues, ASCO has produced a guideline on the practical assessment and management of vulnerabilities in geriatric patients receiving chemotherapy. To develop the...

Total Neoadjuvant Therapy for Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

In a single-institution phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology, Murphy et al found that total neoadjuvant therapy with FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil [5-FU], irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) and individualized chemoradiotherapy was associated with a high R0 resection rate and good outcomes in patients with ...

Opportunities, Issues, and Challenges for Biosimilars in Oncology

In an article in The New England Journal of Medicine, Lyman et al reviewed opportunities, issues, and challenges posed by the advent of biosimilar medications, focusing on biosimilars in cancer treatment. Although these agents could help to meet the health-care goals of high quality care with cost...

Lung Cancer Incidence in Young Women vs Men in the United States

In a study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Jemal et al found that the incidence of lung cancer in young white and Hispanic women is now higher than that in men in the US. Study Details The study involved analysis of data from the North American Association of Central Cancer...

breast cancer
lung cancer

Characteristics and Screening of Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer and NSCLC

In a research letter published in JAMA Oncology, Cagney et al found that brain metastases were more advanced and more likely to be symptomatic in patients with breast cancer compared to patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Current guidelines recommend magnetic resonance imaging...

ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline Focused Update: Selection of Optimal Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy for Early Breast Cancer

As reported by Neelima Denduluri, MD, of US Oncology Network, Virginia Cancer Specialists, and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, ASCO has issued a focused update on the clinical practice guideline on optimal chemotherapy and targeted therapy in early breast cancer. To develop the...

Analysis of Intracranial Response to Brigatinib in ALK-Positive NSCLC With Brain Metastases

In an analysis of two clinical trials reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Camidge et al found that brigatinib (Alunbrig) produced high intracranial response rates and good intracranial progression-free survival in patients with ALK-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and...

Automated Bone Scan Index and Overall Survival in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

In a secondary analysis of the phase III 10TASQ10 trial comparing tasquinimod vs placebo in chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, the automated Bone Scan Index (aBSI) was shown to be predictive of overall survival. The findings were reported in JAMA Oncology by...

Rivaroxaban vs Dalteparin in Patients With Venous Thromboembolism

In a UK pilot trial (SELECT-D) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Young et al found that the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban was associated with a lower rate of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) but a higher rate of clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding compared with the...

Risk-Adapted Treatment for Young Children With Medulloblastoma

In a phase II trial (SJYC07) reported in The Lancet Oncology, Robinson et al found that risk-adapted treatment did not improve event-free survival in young children with medulloblastoma. Analysis by methylation status showed superior outcome in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup. Study Details The ...

leukemia
lymphoma

Rapid Progression of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma During PD-1 Inhibitor Therapy

In a letter to the editor in The New England Journal of Medicine, Ratner et al describe rapid progression of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in three consecutive patients receiving programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor therapy with nivolumab (Opdivo). As stated by the authors,...

solid tumors
gynecologic cancers

Addition of Pazopanib to Paclitaxel in Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

In a phase II trial reported in JAMA Oncology by Debra L. Richardson, MD, of Stephenson Cancer Center, Oklahoma University Health Science Center, and colleagues, the addition of pazopanib (Votrient) to paclitaxel did not improve progression-free survival among women with persistent or recurrent...

solid tumors
issues in oncology
geriatric oncology
lung cancer

Chemoradiation in Elderly Patients With Stage III NSCLC Improves Overall Survival

Elderly patients with stage III non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) showed improved overall survival when treated with chemoradiation compared with definitive radiation alone, according to findings published by Eric D. Miller, MD, PhD, of The Ohio State University, Columbus, and colleagues in the...

solid tumors
issues in oncology
geriatric oncology

Does Warfarin Have Anticancer Potential in Persons Older Than Age 50?

A Norwegian population–based cohort study indicated that the use of warfarin was associated with a reduced risk of cancer overall and site-specific cancers among patients aged > 50 years. The findings were reported in JAMA Internal Medicine by Haaland et al. As noted by the investigators,...

solid tumors

Phase I Study of ERK1/2 Inhibitor in Advanced Solid Tumors

Ulixertinib (BVD-523) is an ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor with potent preclinical activity in BRAF- and RAS-mutant cell lines. Now, a multicenter phase I study investigating its safety and efficacy in the treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors has found that ulixertinib has an acceptable...

solid tumors
skin cancer
head and neck cancer

Dabrafenib Plus Trametinib for Thyroid Cancer, Melanoma With BRAF Mutations

On May 4, 2018, dabrafenib (Tafinlar) and trametinib (Mekinist) in combination was granted approval for treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer with BRAF V600E mutation and no satisfactory locoregional treatment options.1-3 Dabrafenib is not indicated for ...

solid tumors
kidney cancer

CheckMate 214: Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab Improves Survival vs Sunitinib in Advanced Renal Cell Cancer

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Robert J. Motzer, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and colleagues, the phase III CheckMate 214 trial has shown an overall survival advantage with nivolumab (Opdivo) plus ipilimumab (Yervoy) vs sunitinib (Sutent) in patients with...

solid tumors
skin cancer

Durable Complete Responses After Discontinuation of Pembrolizumab in Metastatic Melanoma

As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Caroline Robert, MD, PhD, of Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France, and colleagues, a high proportion of patients with metastatic melanoma achieving a complete response on pembrolizumab (Keytruda) in the phase Ib KEYNOTE-001 trial maintained...

Validation of the Consensus Immunoscore for Classification of Colon Cancer

As reported in The Lancet by Pagès et al, an international collaboration has validated the consensus Immunoscore for colon cancer as a predictive tool for recurrence of disease. Study Details An international consortium of 14 centers in 13 countries, led by the Society for Immunotherapy of ...

Adoption of Anti–PD-1 Agents Into Clinical Practice and Age Differences in Practice vs Pivotal Clinical Trials

In a retrospective cohort study reported in JAMA Oncology, O’Connor et al found that anti­–programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) agents rapidly reached eligible patients after U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. The study also showed that real-world patients were...

Lutetium-177–PSMA-617 Radionuclide Treatment for Previously Treated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

In an Australian investigator-initiated single-center phase II study reported in The Lancet Oncology, Hofman et al found that treatment with a radiolabeled small molecule that binds to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), lutetium-177 (177Lu)–PSMA-617, produced a high response rate ...

FDA Statement on the Signing of the Right to Try Act

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, MD, released the following statement today: For patients with serious or immediately life-threatening diseases, the FDA remains committed to enhancing access to promising investigational medicines for those unable to access...

lung cancer
symptom management

Safety of PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in Patients With NSCLC and Preexisting Autoimmune Disorders

In a study reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Leonardi et al found that programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor monotherapy in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and autoimmune disorders worsened such disorders in a...

Multiple-Gene Sequencing vs BRCA1/2-Only Testing After Breast Cancer Diagnosis

In a retrospective cohort study reported in JAMA Oncology, Kurian et al found that use of germline multiple-gene sequencing has become more common than BRCA1/2-only sequencing after breast cancer diagnosis in clinical practice, with an associated increased detection of pathologic variants not...

colorectal cancer

Risk of Recurrence in Stage III Colon Cancer According to RAS- and BRAF-Mutation Status

In a study in the PETACC-8 trial population reported in JAMA Oncology, Julien Taieb, MD, PhD, of the Université Paris Descartes, and colleagues found that the risk of recurrence in patients with stage III colon cancer differed for the primary tumor location according to RAS- and BRAF-mutation...

head and neck cancer

Number of Metastatic Lymph Nodes and Survival in Hypopharyngeal/Laryngeal Cancer

A study using National Cancer Database data has shown that the number of metastatic nodes is a primary independent factor associated with an increased mortality risk in patients with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers. The study was reported in JAMA Oncology by Allen S. Ho, MD, of the Samuel...

breast cancer

Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Prognosis in Breast Cancer Subtypes

In a study reported in The Lancet Oncology by Denkert and colleagues, increased levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in women receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were associated with improved prognosis in HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancers but poorer outcome in luminal...

breast cancer

Hormonal Contraception and Breast Cancer Risk

As reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Lina S. Mørch, PhD, of the University of Copenhagen, and colleagues, a Danish study has shown that the risk of breast cancer is increased in hormonal contraception users vs nonusers, with the absolute increase in risk being small.  The study...

BRAF Mutations, Survival, and Recurrence in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases

In a study reported in JAMA Surgery, Margonis et al found that presence of a BRAF V600E mutation was associated with higher risk of recurrence and poorer overall survival among patients undergoing surgical resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Study Details The cohort study...

Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

In a report from the diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) registries of the International and European Societies for Pediatric Oncology, published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Hoffman et al identified characteristics of long-term survivors among pediatric and young adult...

Trametinib Treatment for Histiocytic Sarcoma With an Activating MAP2K1 Mutation

In a letter to the editor in The New England Journal of Medicine, Gounder et al described the successful treatment of a patient with histiocytic sarcoma and an activating MAP2K1 (MEK1) mutation with the MAPK kinase 1 and 2 inhibitor trametinib (Mekinist). As noted by the authors, patients with...

lung cancer

Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline

As reported by Hedy L. Kindler, MD, of the University of Chicago, and colleagues in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, ASCO has released a clinical practice guideline on the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.1 The guideline was based on a systematic literature search and expert panel...

lung cancer
skin cancer
issues in oncology

Survival in Male vs Female Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in The Lancet Oncology, Conforti et al found a significant difference in overall survival benefit favoring male vs female patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy for advanced cancers. Study Details The study involved database...

PET-Guided Therapy for Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

In a German phase III trial (PETAL) reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Dührsen et al found that interim 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) findings were associated with  survival in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas receiving R-CHOP (rituximab [Rituxan]...

Circulating Tumor Cells and Benefit of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Early Breast Cancer

In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Goodman et al found that adjuvant radiotherapy was associated with better outcome in patients with early breast cancer who had detectable circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Study Details The analysis included data from patients with stage pT1 to pT2 and pN0 to...

leukemia

Targeted Sequencing Detection of Molecular Minimal Residual Disease and Prognosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

In a study reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Mojca Jongen-Lavrencic, MD, PhD, of Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, and colleagues found that molecular minimal residual disease identified by next-generation sequencing during complete remission was associated with an increased risk of...

head and neck cancer

Once-Weekly vs Every-3-Week Cisplatin Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

In an Indian phase III trial reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vanita Noronha, MD, of Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, and colleagues found that curative-intent adjuvant chemoradiation with cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 every 3 weeks produced better locoregional control vs cisplatin at 30...

gynecologic cancers

Adding Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy to Cytoreductive Surgery Improves Outcomes in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

In a Dutch/Belgian phase III trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine by Willemien J. van Driel, MD, PhD, of the Netherlands Cancer Institute, and colleagues, the addition of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (aka HIPEC) to interval cytoreductive surgery following neoadjuvant...

prostate cancer

MRI-Targeted vs Standard Biopsy in Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: The PRECISION Trial

In the international PRECISION trial reported in The New England Journal of Medicine, Veeru Kasivisvanathan, MRCS, of University College London, and colleagues found that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted biopsy resulted in a significantly higher rate of diagnosis of clinically significant ...

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